Ch. 23 Key Terms

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Angela6
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200679
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Ch. 23 Key Terms
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2013-02-16 19:36:37
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Coagulation
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Coagulation Key terms
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  1. Key Terms
    Hemostasis
    Balance between clotting and bleeding
  2. Hemorrhage
    Bleeding
  3. Thrombosis
    • Clotting
    • Too much=fatal
  4. Vascular system
    Blood vessels
  5. Platelets (thrombocytes)
    Aggregation and adhesion form small clumps at injured site, limiting blood loss
  6. Megakaryocyte
    • Largest cell in the bone marrow, rarely seen in peripheral blood.
    • Platelets are released from the megakaryocyte cytoplasm and enter the peripheral blood.
  7. Endoreduplication
    Cell division without cytoplasmic division (nucleus divides, but the cytoplasm does not)
  8. Fibrinolytic System
    Plasmin dissolves fibrin
  9. Vasoconstriction
    • Blood vessel's diameter decreases.
    • First responder to injury
  10. Blood Clot
    Clot main component is protein (fibrin, glue that fills in the hole of blood vessels)
  11. Serum
    Liquid portion of a blood specimen after allowed to clot.
  12. Plasma
    Liquid portion of a blood specimen after being centrifuged.
  13. Arteries/Veins
    • Arteries: vessels transporting oxygen blood away from the heart.
    • Vessels: transporting de-oxygenated blood back to the heart. Thinner and weaker than arteries.
  14. Arteriole/Venule
    Artery--Arteriole--Capillary--Venule--vein
  15. Capillary
    Middle ground between arteries and veins, where oxygen is delivered to the cells. Very thin, only a single cell layer thick.
  16. Tunica intima
    Innermost, single endothelial cell layer in contact with blood. Underneath lies collagen. Non-reactive with blood.
  17. Tunica adventia
    • Outer layer
    • Connective tissue, nerve endings and the vas vasorm (layers of tissue on outside)
  18. Endothelial
    • Intact
    • Inert with blood components.
    • Traumatized, then physiologically active synthesizes and stores active chemicals
  19. Collagen
    Binds to platelet membrane GP Ib/IIa
  20. Plasminogen activators
    starts fibrinolysis clot dissolution
  21. Prostacyclins
    Inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion
  22. Glycocalyx
    • Fluffy outer coat
    • Regulates shape
    • Platelet adhesion and aggregation
  23. Alpha granules
    (most abundant)
    • vWF
    • Thrombospondin
    • Fibronectin
    • Platelet fibrinogen
    • Platelet factor IV
    • Platelet adhesion
    • Platelet aggregation
  24. Dense granules
    • ADP
    • Serotonin (Vasoconstriction)
  25. Lysosomes
    enzymes
  26. Platelet count
    • Normal count doesn't necessary mean normal function.
    • Manual counts are usually performed to confirm questionable automated platelet counts.
  27. Platelet estimates
    • Performed on all CBCs
    • Average # platelets per oil immersion field x 15,000
  28. Platelet adhesion
    Platelets "stick" to the surfaces of damaged blood vessels
  29. Platelet aggregation
    Platelets sticking to each other at the damaged vessel
  30. GP IIb/IIIa
    attaches to other platelets with Fibrinogen
  31. Aspirin
    • Impairs synthesis of platelet's Thromboxane (TXA2).
    • TXA2 stimulates platelet granule release.
    • Platelet aggregation is impaired for the entire life span of the platelet.
    • Inhibit Platelet function (aggregation) and clotting is inhibited.
  32. Plavix
    • Inhibits platelet GP IIb/IIIa
    • Inhibits function
  33. Epinephrine
    Promotes vasoconstriciton
  34. Serotonin
    • Plasma hormone
    • Promotes vasoconstriction
  35. Factor 1 Fibrinogen
    Soluble
    • Plasma protein precursor to fibrin
    • Fibrinogen---Fibrin clot (insoluble)
  36. Factor 2 Prothrombin
    • Stable precursor of thrombin
    • Prothrombin--Thrombin (active)
  37. Factor 5: Proaccelerin
    • Very liable (1/2 life=16 hours)
    • Consumed during clotting
  38. Factor 8: Anti-Hemophiliac Factor
    • 2 complex components
    • High molecular: vWF, VIII RCo (plt. aggregation), VIII Ag (Antigenic site)
    • Low molecular: VIII C (procoagulant), VIII Ag (Antigenic site)
  39. Factor 9:
    Plasma Thromboplastin component
  40. Factor 10
    Stuart
  41. Factor 11
    Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
  42. Factor 12
    Hangeman
  43. Factor 13
    Fibrin Stabilizing Factor
  44. Fibrinogen Group I
    • 1,5,8,13
    • Consumed during clotting
    • 5 and 8 extremely liable
    • Increased in inflammation, pregnancy, oral contraceptives.
  45. Prothrombin Group II
    • 2,7,9, 10
    • NEEDS Vitamin K for synthesis
    • Not consumed during clotting (except for 2)
  46. Contact Group III
    • 11, 12, PK (Fletcher), HMWK (Fitzgerald)
    • Stable storage/not consumed during clotting.
  47. Intrinsic Pathway
    Activated by contact with negatively charged solid surfaces  (collagen, glass)
  48. Extrinsic Pathway
    Activated by contact with tissue phospholipids (thromboplastin) following endothelial damage
  49. Common pathway
    Represents the merging of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic pathways.
  50. Warfarin
    (Coumarin,Coumadin)
    PT
    • Oral anticoagulants
    • Effective for long term, self-medication
    • Blood thinner
    • Vitamin K antagonists (inhibit Vitamin K)
    • Group II (2,7,9,10)
    • Synthesis in liver
    • Slow acting (8-12 hours)
    • Long duration (72 hours)
  51. Heparin IV
    Anti-coagulant
    PTT
    • Given in a hospital setting-not @ home.
    • Inhibits thrombin by enhancing ATIII
    • Fast acting (effective within mins after IV dosage)
    • 1/2 life=1 hour
  52. Vitamin K
    • Makes the body system avoid excessive blood flow.
    • People without Vitamin K prone to bruising and bleeding.
  53. Fibrinolysis
    Proteins begin the process of limiting the formation and eventual remove the clot.
  54. TPA Tissue Plasminogen Activator
    • Starts fibrinolysis
    • Activates plasminogen--Plasmin breaks up fibrin
  55. Plasminogen
    Inactive
  56. Fibrin Degradation Products
    • Fragments X, Y, D, E
    • Pieces of fibrin
    • Inhibit platelet aggregation, fibrin polymerization, thrombin.
  57. Protein C
    • Inhibits Factor 5 and 8
    • Synthesized in liver
    • Vitamin K dependent
  58. Protein S
    • Natural anticoagulants
    • Major system involved in the regulation of blood coagulation and in the protection against thrombotic diseases
  59. ATIII
    • Most active natural anti-coagulant
    • Inhibits thrombin (Factors 9, 10, 11, 12)
    • Synthesized in liver, platelets, endothelium
  60. Clot buster
    Give to people with heart attack symptoms or go through one
  61. Thromboplastin
    • Any tissue (non-plasma) phospholipid substance.
    • Cell membrane guts

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