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Balance between clotting and bleeding
Aggregation and adhesion form small clumps at injured site, limiting blood loss
- Largest cell in the bone marrow, rarely seen in peripheral blood.
- Platelets are released from the megakaryocyte cytoplasm and enter the peripheral blood.
Cell division without cytoplasmic division (nucleus divides, but the cytoplasm does not)
Plasmin dissolves fibrin
- Blood vessel's diameter decreases.
- First responder to injury
Clot main component is protein (fibrin, glue that fills in the hole of blood vessels)
Liquid portion of a blood specimen after allowed to clot.
Liquid portion of a blood specimen after being centrifuged.
- Arteries: vessels transporting oxygen blood away from the heart.
- Vessels: transporting de-oxygenated blood back to the heart. Thinner and weaker than arteries.
Middle ground between arteries and veins, where oxygen is delivered to the cells. Very thin, only a single cell layer thick.
Innermost, single endothelial cell layer in contact with blood. Underneath lies collagen. Non-reactive with blood.
- Outer layer
- Connective tissue, nerve endings and the vas vasorm (layers of tissue on outside)
- Inert with blood components.
- Traumatized, then physiologically active synthesizes and stores active chemicals
Binds to platelet membrane GP Ib/IIa
starts fibrinolysis clot dissolution
Inhibit platelet aggregation and adhesion
- Fluffy outer coat
- Regulates shape
- Platelet adhesion and aggregation
- Platelet fibrinogen
- Platelet factor IV
- Platelet adhesion
- Platelet aggregation
- Serotonin (Vasoconstriction)
- Normal count doesn't necessary mean normal function.
- Manual counts are usually performed to confirm questionable automated platelet counts.
- Performed on all CBCs
- Average # platelets per oil immersion field x 15,000
Platelets "stick" to the surfaces of damaged blood vessels
Platelets sticking to each other at the damaged vessel
attaches to other platelets with Fibrinogen
- Impairs synthesis of platelet's Thromboxane (TXA2).
- TXA2 stimulates platelet granule release.
- Platelet aggregation is impaired for the entire life span of the platelet.
- Inhibit Platelet function (aggregation) and clotting is inhibited.
- Inhibits platelet GP IIb/IIIa
- Inhibits function
- Plasma hormone
- Promotes vasoconstriction
Factor 1 Fibrinogen
- Plasma protein precursor to fibrin
- Fibrinogen---Fibrin clot (insoluble)
Factor 2 Prothrombin
- Stable precursor of thrombin
- Prothrombin--Thrombin (active)
Factor 5: Proaccelerin
- Very liable (1/2 life=16 hours)
- Consumed during clotting
Factor 8: Anti-Hemophiliac Factor
- 2 complex components
- High molecular: vWF, VIII RCo (plt. aggregation), VIII Ag (Antigenic site)
- Low molecular: VIII C (procoagulant), VIII Ag (Antigenic site)
Plasma Thromboplastin component
Plasma thromboplastin antecedent
Fibrin Stabilizing Factor
Fibrinogen Group I
- Consumed during clotting
- 5 and 8 extremely liable
- Increased in inflammation, pregnancy, oral contraceptives.
Prothrombin Group II
- 2,7,9, 10
- NEEDS Vitamin K for synthesis
- Not consumed during clotting (except for 2)
Contact Group III
- 11, 12, PK (Fletcher), HMWK (Fitzgerald)
- Stable storage/not consumed during clotting.
Activated by contact with negatively charged solid surfaces (collagen, glass)
Activated by contact with tissue phospholipids (thromboplastin) following endothelial damage
Represents the merging of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic pathways.
- Oral anticoagulants
- Effective for long term, self-medication
- Blood thinner
- Vitamin K antagonists (inhibit Vitamin K)
- Group II (2,7,9,10)
- Synthesis in liver
- Slow acting (8-12 hours)
- Long duration (72 hours)
- Given in a hospital setting-not @ home.
- Inhibits thrombin by enhancing ATIII
- Fast acting (effective within mins after IV dosage)
- 1/2 life=1 hour
- Makes the body system avoid excessive blood flow.
- People without Vitamin K prone to bruising and bleeding.
Proteins begin the process of limiting the formation and eventual remove the clot.
TPA Tissue Plasminogen Activator
- Starts fibrinolysis
- Activates plasminogen--Plasmin breaks up fibrin
Fibrin Degradation Products
- Fragments X, Y, D, E
- Pieces of fibrin
- Inhibit platelet aggregation, fibrin polymerization, thrombin.
- Inhibits Factor 5 and 8
- Synthesized in liver
- Vitamin K dependent
- Natural anticoagulants
- Major system involved in the regulation of blood coagulation and in the protection against thrombotic diseases
- Most active natural anti-coagulant
- Inhibits thrombin (Factors 9, 10, 11, 12)
- Synthesized in liver, platelets, endothelium
Give to people with heart attack symptoms or go through one
- Any tissue (non-plasma) phospholipid substance.
- Cell membrane guts