History Exam Essay Questions
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what is civilization and how do historians describe western civilization?
a civilization is a human form of culture in which many people live and make technological advances, live in urban centers,and have a method of writting also social growth and long distance trade. Historians described western civilization as continuously growing and changing all of the time.
What is the significance of Hammurabi’s code? What can we learn from it? Be specific.
Hammurabi's code inflicted many penalties such as mutilation, whipping and burning. Despite all of those things, Hammurabi's code seemed to aim for complete justice and he wanted to govern the people as righteously as possible. the signifigance of this code was that not everyone was punished to the same extent. From nobles and commoners it differed and also some things differed from men and women. it seemed to follow an "eye for an eye policy except for those that were usually higher up sometimes did not have to follow this if they injured someone of lesser value. from this we can learn that even back then, depending on ones social status and value, he could sometimes be treated better than those of lesser rank.
In Archaic and Classical Greece, two polies became dominant but for very different reasons. Select one of them and describe the influence of that polis in Greece.
during the archaic period, the spartans expanded their boundaries of their polis and made it the leading power in greece.
Identify the five primary forms of governance in Classical Greece and select one to describe in further detail. How did this form of government work within a polis?
the five primary forms of governance in classical greece were monarchies, tyrannies, democracies, oligarchies, and federalism. the oligarchy was one of the most popular and lasting of the time. it was a government by a small group of wealthy citizens. many greeks preferred oligarchic constitutions. it left the door open to political and social advancement. it was generally not oppressive and it possed a democratic aspect.
Explain how, in Greece, the Persian and Peloponnesian wars were instrumental in determining power, influence and cultural dominance.
when the greeks had defeated the persians, they ensured that they would not be taken over by a monarchy which they viewed as non-greek. the decisive victories meant that the greek political forms and intellectual concepts would be handed down to later societies. the Aegeans took advantage of the defeat of the persians and formed the Delian League which hoped to liberate Ionia from Persian rule. with the Pelopeonnesian war came fearful plagues, famine, civil wars, widespread destruction, and huge loss of life. the peloponesian war lasted 27 years
What were the four primary Greek values? How did Greeks in Sparta and Athens apply these? How did Homer and Hesiod highlight them? (See the readings in your source book).
the four Primary greek values were arete, self-suffieciency, individualism, and civic virtue. these were sometimes highlighted differently between the spartans and the athens. the spartans it was more obvious on their views of each of the main values of greek.the spartans felt that everyone being physically fit and military trained the best way possible was there sence of arete. this is due to them being hugely military based. self-suffieceny was also big in sparta. they even sometimes encouraged the boys who were in training to steal to survive.individualism was not really as big of a deal. they usually focused more on the people as a whole and thats why the men stuck together closely for much of their lives. the state was much more important than the individual. the spartans lived and died for their city. homer and hesiod also highlight very well some of these values. for instance in homers the odesy, odysseus portrayed a few of the main values. for instance he showed individualism by knowing himself best. he knew that when he heard the songs of the sirens he would not be able to resist their song so he asked his men to bind him down tightly and do not let him go no matter what. it also showed arete. all of the men including odysseus knew the dangers that they would face but they were sailors and they wanted to be the best sailors no matter what. in Hesiods woks and days, he provides a standard for how people should live which is self suffieciency and civic virtue in a way.
ConsiderCyrus the Great’s contribution to Mesopotamian culture. What made him sodifferent from former kings and why did conquered peoples generally approve ofhis rule? Finally, how did he show respect for other cultures and their godsand how did the Hebrews perceive of him?
Cyrus the great was a great king and even considered himself to be great. he came from a long lineage of kings so in a way he felt that it was only natural that he himself became a king. Cyrus actually showed respect and honor to the gods of the people that he overtook. he worshiped them because he felt that they had allowed him to come and take over their people that worshiped them. he commanded his troops to walk around babylon in peace and not to cause trouble with the people that he now ruled.he strove for peace in places he conquered and abolished the labor tribute which was against the babylonians social standard. he felt like he was higher than all kings and he tried to keep those he conquered happy instead of mistreating them just because he had power.he rebuilt ruins that had been destroyed long ago and restored temples for the gods he felt had no sanctuary. he restored the all of the gods to their sanctuaries and askwed that they grant him a long life. so all in all cyrus was not too arrogant in a way of thinking he was all powerful. instead he tried to keep the gods happy and the people of the places he conquered happy so that he may rule in peace and with sucess.
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