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- Human beings are info processors; therefore, mental
- processes guide behavior
The mind can be studied scientifically
- Cognitive process are influenced by social and cultural
A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
Mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli
Entry-level sensory analysis
A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically characterized by a change in behavior from random responding to rule-based responding
Kohler and insight
Disagreed with behaviorists as CLOA believed that the mind can be studied scientifically.
Reaction against traditional behaviorists
The emphasis on mediating processes is central to the cognitive approach
What we already know will influence the outcome of information processing
Info we add in, in order to make sense of
What are the strengths of the schema theory?
Schemas affect cognitive processes such as memory.
- Quite useful for understanding how people categorize
- information, interpret stories,and make inferences.
What are the limitations of the schema theory?
- It is not entirely clear how schemas are acquired in the
- first place and how they actually influence cognitive processes.
Sensory info enters or LTM info enters info is directed based on auditory or visual elements
Much of what we learn we may quickly forget
The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time
This is the process of transforming sensory
information into the long-term memory
The idea that we remember the first and last item of a collection more accurately.
Serial position effect
Craik and Lockhart: Theory that semantic memory is deeper and more accurately remembered
levels of processing
Creating a biological trace of information in your brain.
Holding information for later reference.
fleeting photographic memory, very short.
momentary sensory info from auditory stimuli.
things that bring to mind information that you
the idea of showing subliminal messages in order to prepare the person for the upcoming question.
The theory that you remember information better when you attempt to recall it from the state in which you learned it.
Proactive and retroactive interference
Proactive is interference in memory that happens after the event, retroactive happens from an experience before that memory.
Can consciously retrieve factual information
- memory of general knowledge
- memory for personal experiences & events
Not consciously aware of
- skills, habits, and actions
hippocampus and amygdala and memory
Hippocampus- formation of explicit memories
Amygdala- formation of emotional memories
anterograde and retrograde amnesia
- Amnesia is the inability to learn new information or
- retrieve previously stored information.
- Anterograde is the failure to store NEW memories, while
- Retrograde is the inability to recall OLD memories.
Encephalitis damages parts of the brain involved with memory; has memory of only a few seconds
Surgery which removed parts of the temporal lobe because of epileptic seizures
Resulted in anterograde ammensia
Memories that are very vivid and are of highly emotional moments in ones life.
persons are viewed as unique and autonmous with distinctive qualities and individual automony
identity is defined more by the characteristics of the collective groups to which one belongs
At any moment our awareness focuses like a flashlight beam, on only a limited aspect of all that we experience
Your ability to attend to only one voice among many
Cocktail party effect
the fail to see something that was there because one was too concentrated in doing something
when people exhibit a remarkable lack of awareness of happenings in their visual environment, we more often than not, views don't notice the changes.
people seldom notice the deception when the pictures were switched and they got the picture they had rejecte
when vision competes with other senses, vision usually wins
we transform sensory info into meaningful perceptions
Figure and ground
- objects stand out from surroundings
Organizing stimuli into coherent groups
seeing in 3 dimensions
Gibson and Walk, 1960
enables us to perceive an object as unchanging despite a changing stimulus
Stages of language development
- Babbling stage
- One word stage
- Two word stage
What point does Chomsky make about language development?
that children do learn their environments language, but they acquire untaught words and grammar at a too fast rate
language acquisition device
- inate/have ability to develop language
- acquired to learn language
- theoretical element
the time when it's critcal to learn/master a second language and that is btw 0-7 years and ball park number