Cognitive Level of Analysis

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  1. Basic Principes
    • Human beings are info processors; therefore, mental
    • processes guide behavior

    The mind can be studied scientifically

    • Cognitive process are influenced by social and cultural
    • factors
  2. Latent Learning
    A term used by Tolman to describe situations in which learning is distinct from the performance of a behavior
  3. Cognitive Maps
    Mental representation of learned relationships among stimuli
  4. Entry-level sensory analysis
    bottom-up processing
  5. Interpreting sensations
    top-down processing
  6. A sudden change in the way one organizes a problem situation, typically characterized by a change in behavior from random responding to rule-based responding
    Kohler and insight
  7. Disagreed with behaviorists as CLOA believed that the mind can be studied scientifically.
    Reaction against traditional behaviorists
  8. The emphasis on mediating processes is central to the cognitive approach 
  9. What we already know will influence the outcome of information processing
    Schema theory
  10. Info we add in, in order to make sense of
  11. What are the strengths of the schema theory?
    Schemas affect cognitive processes such as memory.

    • Quite useful for understanding how people categorize
    • information, interpret stories,and make inferences.
  12. What are the limitations of the schema theory?
    • It is not entirely clear how schemas are acquired in the
    • first place and how they actually influence cognitive processes.

    Too vague
  13. Sensory info enters or LTM info enters info is directed based on auditory or visual elements
    Working Memory
  14. Much of what we learn we may quickly forget
    The course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time
    forgetting curve
  15. This is the process of transforming sensory
    information into the long-term memory
  16. The idea that we remember the first and last item of a collection more accurately.
    Serial position effect
  17. Craik and Lockhart: Theory that semantic memory is deeper and more accurately remembered
    levels of processing
  18. Creating a biological trace of information in your brain.

    Holding information for later reference. 
  19. fleeting photographic memory, very short. 
    iconic memory
  20. momentary sensory info from auditory stimuli.

    echoic memory
  21. things that bring to mind information that you
    have stored
  22. the idea of showing subliminal messages in order to prepare the person for the upcoming question. 
  23. The theory that you remember information better when you attempt to recall it from the state in which you learned it.
    state-dependent theory
  24. Proactive and retroactive interference
    Proactive is interference in memory that happens after the event, retroactive happens from an experience before that memory. 
  25. Explicit Memory

    Can consciously retrieve factual information

    2 categories:

    •        Semantic:
    • memory of general knowledge

    •        Episodic:
    • memory for personal experiences & events

  26. Implicit memory
    Not consciously aware of

    2 categories:

    •        Procedural:
    • skills, habits, and actions

  27. hippocampus and amygdala and memory
    Hippocampus- formation of explicit memories

    Amygdala- formation of emotional memories
  28. anterograde and retrograde amnesia
    • Amnesia is the inability to learn new information or
    • retrieve previously stored information.

    • Anterograde is the failure to store NEW memories, while
    • Retrograde is the inability to recall OLD memories. 
  29. Clive Wearing
    Encephalitis damages parts of the brain involved with memory; has memory of only a few seconds
  30. HM
    Surgery which removed parts of the temporal lobe because of epileptic seizures

    Resulted in anterograde ammensia
  31. Memories that are very vivid and are of highly emotional moments in ones life.

    flashbulb  memories 
  32. persons are viewed as unique and autonmous with distinctive qualities and individual automony
    Individualist culture
  33. identity is defined more by the characteristics of the collective groups to which one belongs
    Collectivist culture
  34. At any moment our awareness focuses like a flashlight beam, on only a limited aspect of all that we experience
    Selective attention
  35. Your ability to attend to only one voice among many
    Cocktail party effect
  36. the fail to see something that was there because one was too concentrated in doing something
    inattentional blindness
  37. when people exhibit a remarkable lack of awareness of happenings in their visual environment, we more often than not, views don't notice the changes.
    Change blindness
  38. people seldom notice the deception when the pictures were switched and they got the picture they had rejecte
    Choice Blindness
  39. when vision competes with other senses, vision usually wins
    visual capture
  40. we transform sensory info into meaningful perceptions
  41. Figure and ground
    • objects stand out from surroundings
    • figure:object
    • surroundings:ground
  42. Organizing stimuli into coherent groups
  43. seeing in 3 dimensions
    depth perception
  44. Visual Clif
    Gibson and Walk, 1960
  45. enables us to perceive an object as unchanging despite a changing stimulus
    perceptual constancy
  46. Stages of language development
    • Babbling stage
    • One word stage
    • Two word stage
  47. What point does Chomsky make about language development?
    that children do learn their environments language, but they acquire untaught words and grammar at a too fast rate
  48. language acquisition device
    • inate/have ability to develop language
    • acquired to learn language
    • theoretical element
  49. Critical period
    the time when it's critcal to learn/master a second language and that is btw 0-7 years and ball park number
Card Set:
Cognitive Level of Analysis
2013-02-15 07:21:45

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