Socialist Realism and Shoshtakovich

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Socialist Realism and Shoshtakovich
2013-02-15 03:02:58
Music Section

Music Section 4
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  1. What are the three qualities of Social Realism and what are they similar too
    • Ideynost (Ideology)
    • Partiynost (Party-mindedness) 
    • Narodnost (Nationality/populism)
    • The are like the 3 parts of nationality (Orthodoxy, Autocracy and Nationalism)
  2. What was the initial prototype of Socialist Realism
    The late 19th century Russian Literary trend known as Critical Realism (Tolstoy) 
  3. What did Social Realism imply for composers
    Anti-modernist aesthetics
  4. What are the three branches of musical modernism 
    Realist, Atonal and Neoclassicism 
  5. What was the realistic potential in music
    Ability to suggest plausible succession of psychological states brought to a peak from Beethoven to Tchaikovsky
  6. Atonal music, contrary to realism did what
    alienated from normal human emotion which to viewers seemed to depict psychopathic emotion 
  7. What was the third branch of musical modernism
    Neoclassicism, was tonal but its leader, Stravinsky was anti-soviet and claimed that music was incapable of portraying human emotion 
  8. In Jan 1936 Stalin attended two operas. What were the two operas and what did he think of them
    Quite flows of the Don by Ivan Dzerzhinsky which Stalin praised and Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk by Shastakovich which he left before it even finished
  9. What was the critique of Shostakovich's Macbeth
    national party news paper Pravda called it "Sumbar vmesto muzyki" (This is chaos not music) "Muddle instead of Music" 
  10. What was probably the reason behind Stalin's distaste of Lady Macbeth
    • The content, not the music itself. The problem was that it was overly sexual for the viewing of someone like Stalin, even the US President would be embarrassed by the showing
    • New York Times called it a Pornophony
  11. How does Lady Macbeth end
    With Macbeth being sent to Siberia after being tried for murder, she then kills another man, then drowns herself 
  12. What is the apotheosis of Shostakovich's fourth symphony 
    erupts into a noisy heroic ending then into a funeral theme and the music dies away slowly into the minor
  13. What did he notice about his contemporaries views on his music
    It became clear they were no longer warm to his music and they thought of his work as chaos
  14. His fourth symphony was clearly influenced by who 
    Gustav Mahler
  15. His fifth symphony still had traces of Mahler, but was overshadowed by the influence of who
    Beethoven and Tchaikovsky 
  16. What are the features of Shostakovich's fifth symphony
    • four structured movements, clear and recurring themes and a psychological narrative with powerful Tchaikovskian climaxes
    • Importantly a positive ending in the major
  17. What do some people think about the ending of Shostakovich's fifth symphony 
    It isn't sincere and is tacked on so it can be classified as Social realist
  18. Explain the three movements within Shostakovich's fifth symphony
    • Slow, grim opening passage where material is developed slowly and no melody appears till later
    • A grotesque and violent march in the first movement with a climax of disturbing intensity 
    • And a scherzo movement with Mahlerian irony, and the pained grief of the third, slow movement 
  19. What did people think about the scherzo movement, what was a drastic occurrence 
    • Many considered it a lament for the victims of Stalin's Purges 
    • Shostakovich's friend and patron, Marshal Tukhahachevsky was executed 
  20. Where did Shostakovich write the 7th symphony 
    • In Leningrad during the nazi invasion 
    • 3 Year siege, 1.5 million dead
  21. What role did Shostakovich serve at night during the nazi siege of Leningrad
    AS fireman protecting from German fire bombs 
  22. Where did Shostakovich's 7th symphony premier
    Kuybyshev (Now Samara) 
  23. What is exciting about the history of Shostakovich's 7th symphony
    It was flown to Tehran, then to Britain and the US where great composers scrambled to premier it
  24. What does the Invasion Episode open in
    A sonata 
  25. How is the melody of the Invasion Episode showed
    Over a changing background according the Glinka variations
  26. What was the immediate influence on the Invasion Episode 
    Maurice Ravel's Bolero
  27. What similarities are there between Bolero and the Invasion Episode
    Features a repeated drum figure, and a very lengthy crescendo supported by changing orchestration 
  28. What does the orchestra's crescendo in  the Invasion Episode allow Shostakovich to create 
    the impression that danger is slow but approaching
  29. How many variations are their in the Crescendo of the Invasion Episode? Which variation does our version start at
    11 Variations, with ours starting at the third; A canon
  30. What does Shostakovich do at the climax of the Invasion Episode
    He ratchets it up a tension, implying that the forces (Nazis) have met an obstacle 
  31. What is the impression of Shostakovich's eighth symphony 
    It is too dark and complex for Socialist Realism
  32. About how many lives did Russia lose during WII
    Some 26 million 
  33. What were the plans for Shostakovich's ninth symphony 
    It was to be grand symphony of victory with a chorus like Beethoven's ninth
  34. What did Shostakovich do with his ninth symphony
    He scrapped the victory idea and made it on a small scale with it in tune with Prokofiev's "Classical" but more sharply grotesque with distortions of classical idioms 
  35. What was Song of the Forest dedicated to 
    Stalin's reforestation plans
  36. What was the time frame of the Thaw
  37. What was Shostakovich's thirteenth symphony
    It was not a symphony in the traditional sense; instead it was 5 poems by Yevgeni Yevtushenko for a bass soloist and male chorus with orchestra
  38. Which Yevtushenko poem was Shostakovich particularly struck by
    Babi Yar, which was printed in the newspaper
  39. What was the setting of Babi Yar
    In the suburbs or Kiev while the Nazis slaughtered thousands of Jews (He wanted to warn against anti-Semitism)