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Cortical Hormone Disorders:
of cortisol and aldosterone.
- -Most cases are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex or blockage of ACTH binding.
- Results in:
- *Low blood pressure
- *Na loss and K retention
- *Hypotension (low blood pressure)
Cortical Hormone Disorders
-Excess cortisol or an ACTH-secreting tumor, causing an excess of cortisol.
- -Results in:
- *High blood glucose
*Immune suppression and poor wound healing
*Hypertension (high blood pressure)
*Body fat redistribution- spindly arms and legs, moon face, buffalo hump (fat pads on face), and a hanging abdomen.
Adrenal Medulla Disorders
-Usually caused by benign tumors of the cells in the medulla.
-Increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
-Causes a prolonged fight or flight response.
-Causes hypertension, increased metabolism, decreased gastric mobility, nervousness, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria
A pheochromocytoma is a
Benign tumor of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
The pancreas is both an
endocrine and an exocrine gland.
The pancreas is located posterior and inferior to the stomach.
99% of the pancreatic cells are arranged in clusters called
The acini provide for the exocrine function of the pancreas
Distributed among the acini are clusters of endocrine tissue called
pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
Each islet has hormone secreting cells
alpha, beta, delta, and F cells
Alpha cells secrete
glucagon. % of islet 17%
-increases blood glucose level
-Acts on hepatocytes to convert glycogen to glucose
Beta cells secrete
insulin. % of islet 70%
-Decreases blood glucose level
-Speeds conversion of glucose to glycogen and accelerates facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells.
Delta cells secrete
somatostatin. % of islet 7%
-Acts to inhibit insulin and glucagon
F cells secrete
pancreatic polypeptide. % of islet 6%
Glucagon and insulin are
- -Accelerates facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells.
- *increase the number of transport proteins
-Speed conversion of glucose into glycogen
-Increases uptake of amino acids by cells to increase protein synthesis
-Speeds up synthesis of fatty acids
It can be the lack of production, the lack of a response to insulin, or both
How can too much blood sugar be a problem?
* The problem isn't that the blood sugar level is high. The problem is that its all in the blood, and there isn't any in the cells where it can be used for energy.
* Its like purchasing a car load of groceries, but licking them in the food pantry.
High blood glucose causes:
glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
The most common disorder affecting insulin production is
Diabetes mellitus is the
endocrine disorder caused by the inability to produce or use insulin.
Type 1 diabetes
*Also called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes
*Typically occurs in a younger population
*Genetically influenced but environmentally induced
*Autoimmune antibody against the beta cells
*Results in a lack of insulin production
Type 2 diabetes
*Also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes
*More genetically influenced than type 1
*Patients produce less insulin and don't utilize what they do produce appropriately
*Decreased sensitivity to insulin- down-regulation of insulin receptors
Either type of diabetes can result in
With the loss of beta cells, the patient doesn't have insulin to help facilitate
diffusion of glucose into the body's cells.
One of the leading causes of type II diabetes is
Most medical scientists would re-classify type 2 diabetes as a part of
metabolic syndrome, a cluster of hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance.
Hyperinsulinism is most common in diabetic patients that take too much
insulin compared to their caloric intake
The low glucose causes an increased amount of
epinephrine, glucagon, and hGH
- Causes anxiety, sweating, tremors, increased heart rate, hunger, and weakness
Brain cells are deprived of
glucose, so mental disorientation, convulsions, and unconsciousness can occur
Can result in "insulin shock"
shock due to insulin overdose
If a patient doesn't have any available insulin, they
will utilize fatty acids for their energy source.
-The byproducts of fatty acid metabolism are ketoacids, simply called ketones
-Everyone produces ketones when they metabolize fatty acids, but unless there is a complete lack of insulin, never in excess.
- Causes an acidic shift in the patient's pH
With a complete lack of insulin, type I diabetics can experience a condition called