Biomedical Core

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Biomedical Core
2013-02-15 09:15:22

Objective 28-33
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  1. Cortical Hormone Disorders:

    Addison Disease
    -Hyposecretion of cortisol and aldosterone.

    • -Most cases are caused by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex or blockage of ACTH binding.
    • Results in:
    • *Low blood pressure
    • *Na loss and K retention
    • *Dehydration
    • *Hypotension (low blood pressure)
  2. Cortical Hormone Disorders

    Cushing Disease/Syndrome
    -Excess cortisol or an ACTH-secreting tumor, causing an excess of cortisol.

    • -Results in:
    • *High blood glucose

    *Immune suppression and poor wound healing

    *Hypertension (high blood pressure)

    *Body fat redistribution- spindly arms and legs, moon face, buffalo hump (fat pads on face), and a hanging abdomen.
  3. Adrenal Medulla Disorders

    -Usually caused by benign tumors of the cells in the medulla.

    -Increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

    -Causes a prolonged fight or flight response.

    -Causes hypertension, increased metabolism, decreased gastric mobility, nervousness, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria
  4. A pheochromocytoma is a
    Benign tumor of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla.
  5. The pancreas is both an
    endocrine and an exocrine gland.

    The pancreas is located posterior and inferior to the stomach.
  6. 99% of the pancreatic cells are arranged in clusters called

    The acini provide for the exocrine function of the pancreas
  7. Distributed among the acini are clusters of endocrine tissue called
    pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans
  8. Each islet has hormone secreting cells
    alpha, beta, delta, and F cells
  9. Pancreas:

    Alpha cells secrete
    glucagon.     % of islet 17%

    -increases blood glucose level

    -Acts on hepatocytes to convert glycogen to glucose
  10. Pancreas:

    Beta cells secrete
    insulin.      % of islet 70%

    -Decreases blood glucose level

    -Speeds conversion of glucose to glycogen and accelerates facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells.
  11. Pancreas:

    Delta cells secrete
    somatostatin.    % of islet  7%

    -Acts to inhibit insulin and glucagon
  12. Pancreas:

    F cells secrete
    pancreatic polypeptide.   % of islet 6%

    -inhibits somatostatin
  13. Glucagon and insulin are
  14. Insulin:
    • -Accelerates facilitated diffusion of glucose into cells.
    • *increase the number of transport proteins

    -Speed conversion of glucose into glycogen

    -Increases uptake of amino acids by cells to increase protein synthesis

    -Speeds up synthesis of fatty acids

    -Decreases gluconeogenesis
  15. Insulin:

    It can be the lack of production, the lack of a response to insulin, or both
  16. How can too much blood sugar be a problem?
    * The problem isn't that the blood sugar level is high. The problem is that its all in the blood, and there isn't any in the cells where it can be used for energy.

    * Its like purchasing a car load of groceries, but licking them in the food pantry.
  17. High blood glucose causes:
    glucosuria, polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia
  18. The most common disorder affecting insulin production is
    diabetes mellitus
  19. Diabetes mellitus is the
    endocrine disorder caused by the inability to produce or use insulin.
  20. Type 1 diabetes
    *Also called juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes

    *Typically occurs in a younger population

    *Genetically influenced but environmentally induced

    *Autoimmune antibody against the beta cells

    *Results in a lack of insulin production
  21. Type 2 diabetes
    *Also called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes

    *More genetically influenced than type 1

    *Patients produce less insulin and don't utilize what they do produce appropriately

    *Decreased sensitivity to insulin- down-regulation of insulin receptors
  22. Either type of diabetes can result in
    diabetic coma
  23. With the loss of beta cells, the patient doesn't have insulin to help facilitate
    diffusion of glucose into the body's cells.
  24. One of the leading causes of type II diabetes is
  25. Most medical scientists would re-classify type 2 diabetes as a part of
    metabolic syndrome, a cluster of hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance.
  26. Hyperinsulinism is most common in diabetic patients that take too much
    insulin compared to their caloric intake
  27. Hyperinsulinism:

    The low glucose causes an increased amount of
    epinephrine, glucagon, and hGH

    - Causes anxiety, sweating, tremors, increased heart rate, hunger, and weakness
  28. Hyperinsulinism:

    Brain cells are deprived of
    glucose, so mental disorientation, convulsions, and unconsciousness can occur
  29. Hyperinsulinism:

    Can result in "insulin shock"
    shock due to insulin overdose
  30. Diabetic Ketoacidosis:

    If a patient doesn't have any available insulin, they
    will utilize fatty acids for their energy source.

    -The byproducts of fatty acid metabolism are ketoacids, simply called ketones

    -Everyone produces ketones when they metabolize fatty acids, but unless there is a complete lack of insulin, never in excess.

    - Causes an acidic shift in the patient's pH
  31. With a complete lack of insulin, type I diabetics can experience a condition called