Neuro Exam 2.1
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What are the 3 main vesicles of the brain?
What does the prosencephalon become?
What two vesicles does the prosencephalon become?
What ventricle does the telencephalon form?
What does the telencephalon become?
- cerebral cortex
- basal ganglia
- semioval center
What ventricle does the diencephalon become?
What does the diencephalon become?
What does the mesencephalon become?
What ventricle does the rhombencephalon become?
What vesicles does the rhombencephalon form?
What does the metencephalon become?
What does the myelencephalon become?
What are the characteristics of the telencephalon?
- separated into right and left hemispheres
- lateral ventricles located in each hemisphere
- divided into 5 anatomical lobes
- has gyri and sulci
What separates the telencephalon into right and left hemispheres?
Which lateral ventricle in the telencephalon is 1? Which lateral ventricle in the telencephalon is 2?
no one knows
- convolutions of tissue
- all have names
- groove found b/w gyri
- all have names
The 5 lobes of the telencephalon are all:
What are the 5 lobes of the telencephalon?
Frontal lobe of telencephalon:
occurs between frontal poles to the central sulcus posterior, and lateral fissure laterally
Parietal lobe of telencephalon:
extends from central sulcus to parieto-occipital sulcus posteriorly
Occipital lobe of telencephalon:
posterior to parieto-occipital sulcus
Temporal lobe of telencephalon:
inferior to lateral fissure and extends back to level of parieto-occipital sulcus
What is another name for the lateral fissure?
Insula of the telencephalon:
lies deep to lateral fissure and comprised of 4-5 gyri
What are other names for the insula of the telencephalon?
- Island of Reil
- Hidden lobe
The white matter in the telencephalon contains:
cellular processes of cell bodies (axons)
The grey matter of the telencephalon contains:
cell bodies of neurons (not-myelinated)
The grey matter of the telencephalon makes up the:
How thick is the cerebral cortex?
How big is the cerebral cortex?
2.5 sq ft.
The thickness of the cerebral cortex depends on:
How thick is the precentral gyrus?
How thick is the calcarine gyrus in the occipital lobe?
How many neurons are found in the cerebral cortex?
Neurons of the cortex are:
amitotic (w/ a few exceptions)
What occur in the 6 histological layers of cells in cortex?
Each layer of the cortex communicates w/:
another adjacent layer
Organized horizontally, the 6 layers of cells in cortex (superficial to deep) are:
- external granular
- external pyramidal
- internal granular
- internal pyramidal
If the cortex layers are normal, then communication is:
If cortex layers have messed up cyto-artitecture, communication:
How are the cortex layers organized?
- named by type of neuron present
- density of cells
- arrangement of cells
Cortex dysfunctions if:
the cyto0architecture is disrupted
What are types of functional cortical mapping?
- pathological data
- electro-stimulation data
- blood flow data
- metabolic data
crude approach, made assumptions based on area of brain that is injured and the behavior that ensued
tap areas of brain w/ current and see what happens; often used in neurosurgery to make sure the right spot is operated on
Blood flow data:
- functional MRI (fMRI)
- there is an increase or decrease in blood flow as a result of a task
- during fMRI, pt does a task while in MRI tube and physicians observe which area of the brain has a "hot spot"
What are the limitations of blood flow data?
- lighting up does not occur in real time
- don't know if area is excitatory or inhibitory
What are two types of metabolic data?
- pt injected w/ radioactive isotope w/ short half-life that binds to oxygen and glucose
- pt performs task and area active has greater emission of photons
single photon emitted CT scan
Historical Maps were based on:
pathological and electro-stimulation data
What are the types of historical maps?
What is the most famous historical map still used today?
What would you like to do?
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