Neuro Exam 2.1

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brau2308
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200746
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Neuro Exam 2.1
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2013-02-15 11:33:32
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neurology neuroscience neuroanatomy
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review of neuro lecture 1 for Exam 2
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  1. What are the 3 main vesicles of the brain?
    • prosencephalon
    • mesencephalon
    • rhombencephalon
  2. What does the prosencephalon become?
    forebrain
  3. What two vesicles does the prosencephalon become?
    • telencephalon
    • diencephalon
  4. What ventricle does the telencephalon form?
    lateral ventricles
  5. What does the telencephalon become?
    • cerebral cortex
    • basal ganglia
    • rhinencephalon
    • semioval center
  6. What ventricle does the diencephalon become?
    3rd ventricle
  7. What does the diencephalon become?
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
    • subthalamus
  8. What does the mesencephalon become?
    midbrain
  9. What ventricle does the rhombencephalon become?
    4th ventricle
  10. What vesicles does the rhombencephalon form?
    • metencephalon
    • myelencephalon
  11. What does the metencephalon become?
    • pons
    • cerebellum
  12. What does the myelencephalon become?
    medulla oblongata
  13. What are the characteristics of the telencephalon?
    • separated into right and left hemispheres
    • lateral ventricles located in each hemisphere
    • divided into 5 anatomical lobes
    • has gyri and sulci
  14. What separates the telencephalon into right and left hemispheres?
    longitudinal fissure
  15. Which lateral ventricle in the telencephalon is 1? Which lateral ventricle in the telencephalon is 2?
    no one knows
  16. Gyri
    • convolutions of tissue
    • all have names
  17. sulci
    • groove found b/w gyri
    • all have names
  18. Fissure
    big sulcus
  19. The 5 lobes of the telencephalon are all:
    bilateral
  20. What are the 5 lobes of the telencephalon?
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • occipital
    • temporal
    • insula
  21. Frontal lobe of telencephalon:
    occurs between frontal poles to the central sulcus posterior, and lateral fissure laterally
  22. Parietal lobe of telencephalon:
    extends from central sulcus to parieto-occipital sulcus posteriorly
  23. Occipital lobe of telencephalon:
    posterior to parieto-occipital sulcus
  24. Temporal lobe of telencephalon:
    inferior to lateral fissure and extends back to level of parieto-occipital sulcus
  25. What is another name for the lateral fissure?
    Sylvian fissure
  26. Insula of the telencephalon:
    lies deep to lateral fissure and comprised of 4-5 gyri
  27. What are other names for the insula of the telencephalon?
    • Island of Reil
    • Hidden lobe
  28. The white matter in the telencephalon contains:
    cellular processes of cell bodies (axons)
  29. The grey matter of the telencephalon contains:
    cell bodies of neurons (not-myelinated)
  30. The grey matter of the telencephalon makes up the:
    cerebral cortex
  31. How thick is the cerebral cortex?
    4-5mm thick
  32. How big is the cerebral cortex?
    2.5 sq ft.
  33. The thickness of the cerebral cortex depends on:
    the gyrus
  34. How thick is the precentral gyrus?
    4.5mm
  35. How thick is the calcarine gyrus in the occipital lobe?
    1.5mm
  36. How many neurons are found in the cerebral cortex?
    14 billion
  37. Neurons of the cortex are:
    amitotic (w/ a few exceptions)
  38. amitotic
    permanent
  39. What occur in the 6 histological layers of cells in cortex?
    neurons
  40. Each layer of the cortex communicates w/:
    another adjacent layer
  41. Organized horizontally, the 6 layers of cells in cortex (superficial to deep) are:
    • molecular
    • external granular
    • external pyramidal
    • internal granular
    • internal pyramidal
    • polymorphic
  42. If the cortex layers are normal, then communication is:
    normal
  43. If cortex layers have messed up cyto-artitecture, communication:
    is impaired
  44. How are the cortex layers organized?
    • named by type of neuron present
    • density of cells
    • arrangement of cells
  45. Cortex dysfunctions if:
    the cyto0architecture is disrupted
  46. What are types of functional cortical mapping?
    • pathological data
    • electro-stimulation data
    • blood flow data
    • metabolic data
  47. Pathological data:
    crude approach, made assumptions based on area of brain that is injured and the behavior that ensued
  48. Electro-stimulation data:
    tap areas of brain w/ current and see what happens; often used in neurosurgery to make sure the right spot is operated on
  49. Blood flow data:
    • functional MRI (fMRI)
    • there is an increase or decrease in blood flow as a result of a task
    • during fMRI, pt does a task while in MRI tube and physicians observe which area of the brain has a "hot spot"
  50. What are the limitations of blood flow data?
    • lighting up does not occur in real time
    • don't know if area is excitatory or inhibitory
  51. What are two types of metabolic data?
    • PET scan
    • SPECT
  52. PET scan:
    • pt injected w/ radioactive isotope w/ short half-life that binds to oxygen and glucose
    • pt performs task and area active has greater emission of photons
  53. SPECT:
    single photon emitted CT scan
  54. Historical Maps were based on:
    pathological and electro-stimulation data
  55. What are the types of historical maps?
    • Campbell
    • Broadmann
    • Economo
  56. What is the most famous historical map still used today?
    Broadmann
  57. Campbell:
    • 1905
    • mapped 20 areas
  58. Broadmann:
    • 1909
    • mapped 47 areas
  59. Economo:
    • 1929
    • mapped 97 areas

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