BIO metabolism

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  1. catabolism =
    breakdown of complex organic molecules
  2. what does catabolism yield
    • ATP
    • cellular building blocks
  3. anabolism =
    • Biosynthesis
    • synthesis of macromolecules and cell structures
  4. what is involved in ALL metabolic processes
  5. oxidation vs reduction
    • oxidation = electron removal
    • reduction = electron addition
    • OILRIG
  6. what two steps take place in a chemical reactions
    • oxidation removal of hydrogen
    • reduction addition of hydrogen
  7. coenzyme is
    a non-protein structure that assist enzymes
  8. catalyst =
    • dramatically increase rate of chemical reaction
    • lower activation energy of reaction
  9. substrate =
    the active site on a molecule that enzymes attach too
  10. cofactors =
    coenzymes or prosthetic groups
  11. prosthetic groups =
    • enzyme and cofactor are bound tightly/permanently
    • ie heme group
  12. coenzyme as aa cofactor are
    • looe association between enzyme and cofactor
    • ie NAD+/NADH
  13. substrate =
    molecule upon which an enzyme acts
  14. respiration =
    • the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy
  15. what is starting material of cellular respiration
  16. description of respiration and glucose association
    Respiration is the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy. The starting material of cellular respiration is the sugar glucose, which has energy stored in its chemical bonds. You can think of glucose as a kind of cellular piece of coal: chock-full of energy, but useless when you want to power a stereo. Just as burning coal produces heat and energy in the form of electricity, the chemical processes of respiration convert the energy in glucose into usable form.
  17. ATP 
    • the usable form of energy produced by respiration.
    • take sugar (coal) and turn it into usable form (ATP)
  18. how do RNA and ATP differ
    • RNA has one phosphate
    • ATP has 3
  19. what happens when cell needs energy
    When the cell needs energy, it removes phosphates from ATP by hydrolysis, creating energy and either adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which has two phosphates, or adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which has one phosphate.
  20. glycolisis
    • DO NOT NEED O2
    • first step of cellular respiration
  21. two types of respiration are
    aerobic and anaerobic
  22. aerobic cell respiration is
    • Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. More precisely, this process involves six oxygen molecules for every sugar molecule:
    • • 6O2 + C6H12O6-----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
    • • This general equation for aerobic respiration (which you should know for the test) is actually the product of three separate stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
  23. what is the first stage of aerobic respiration
  24. what is the first stage of anaerobic respration
  25. how many oxygen molecules for every sugar in aerobic respiration
    six O2 molecules for every sugar
  26. where does glycolysis take place
    cytoplasm of the cell
  27. in glycolysis ATP is used to  
    split glucose molecules into a 3 carbon compound called pyruvate
  28. net gain on glycolysis =
    2 ATP
  29. main goal of glycolysis is
    to get 2 NADH molecules to send to the mitochondria for (krebs cycle and electron transport chain)
  30. anaerobic respiration = another word for is
  31. things to know about glycolysis
    • • Glycolysis is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
    • • Glycolysis splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons.
    • • In glycolysis, a 2 ATP investment results in a 4 ATP payoff.
    • • Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
    • • Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, glycolysis does not require oxygen.
  32. aceytl-CoA =
    what starts the kreb cycle
  33. what is the source of of CO2 we breathe out
    the krebs cycle
  34. krebs cycle results in
    2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule
  35. what does the krebs cycle send and where
    NADH and FADH2 on to the next step in respiration = electron transport chain
  36. where does krebs cycle take place
    • mitochondrial matrix
    • the innermost compartment of mitchondria
  37. how many ATP does electron trans chain produce
    34 ATP molecules
  38. what is citric acid cycle
    krebs cycle
  39. krebs cycle can only take place when
    O2 is present ecen though it isn't used directly in the cycle
  40. is the Krebs cycle an aerobic process
  41. ETC produces
    34 ATP
  42. where does the ETC take place
    the inner membrane of the mitochondria for eukaryotes
  43. does ETC require O2
  44. summary of aerobic respiration =
    • • Four ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combined. The electron transport chain produces 34 ATP.  There are 38 total ATP’s produced.
    • • The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria and Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) also occurs in the mitrochondria, but in the mitrochondria matrix.
    • • Glycolysis can be aerobic or anaerobe. The Kreb’s Cycle is considered aerobic, and the electron transport chain requires oxygen.
    • • Prokaryotes have no mitochondria, but carry out a process similar to Electron Transport between the cell wall and cell membrane(s) using the periplasmic space. They carry out a similar process to the Kreb’sCycle in the cytoplasm.  They carry out Glycolysis in the cytoplasm also, just like Eukaryotes.
  45. anaerobic respiration is
  46. do prokaryotes have mitochondria
  47. in the absence of oxygen organisma continue to carry out...
    glycolysis (doesn't require O2)
  48. 2 types of fermentation are
    • lactic acid fermintation
    • alcoholic fermintation
  49. lactic acid fermintation is common in
    fungi and bacteria  human muscle cells
  50. Prokaryotes have no mitochondria, but carry out a process similar to Electron Transport where ?
    between the cell wall and the cell membrane using the periplasmic space.
  51. where do prokaryotes carry out glycolysis
    in the cytoplasm
  52. prokaryotes have a similar process to the krebs cycle which is carried out where
    in the cytoplasm
  53. why do anaerobic organisms need fermentation?
    • they have to have a way to turn NADH back to NAD+ for glycolysis.
    • they need this because Aerobic organisms use O to turn NADH to NAD+
  54. since glycolysis needs NAD+to start where does it get it
    the electron transport chain turns NADH back into NAD+ with the aid of oxygen
  55. fermentation is
    the incomplete oxidation of glucose in absence of O2.
  56. what happens in lactic acid fermentation
    pyruvate is converted to a three carbon compound called lactic acid.
  57. alcoholic fermentation =
    pyruvate +NADH----> ethyl alcohol + NAD+ + CO2
  58. two types of fermentors
    • facultative anaerobes
    • strict fermentors
  59. what are facultative anaerobes
    • microbes that ferment in the absence of oxygen
    • and perform respiration in the presence of oxygen
    • (this is why the facultative anaerobes grew throughout the thygilocolate tube)
  60. strict fermenters are
    • microbes that do not have repiration
    • ie yeast
  61. what specifically does glycolysis do to glucose
    splits glucose (a six carbon compound) into 2 pyruvate (a 3 carbon compound)
  62. what does glycolysis invest to split glucose
    2 ATP
  63. In glycolysis 2 ATP investment results in
    4 ATP so net gain of 2 ATP
  64. Unlike the rest of cellular respiration glycolysis does not require what
  65. How many ATP produced by cellular respiration and where?
    • 38 total
    • 2 - glycolysis
    • 2 - Krebs cycle
    • 34 - Electron transport chain
  66. where does ETC take place
    across the inner membrane of the mitochondria
  67. Where does Krebs cycle take place
    in mitochondrial matrix
  68. which part of cellular respiration are aerobic and anaerobic?
    • Krebs and ETC = aerobic
    • glycolysis = aerobic or anaerobic

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BIO metabolism
2013-02-21 10:49:26
BIO metabolism

BIO metabolism
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