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breakdown of complex organic molecules
what does catabolism yield
- cellular building blocks
- synthesis of macromolecules and cell structures
what is involved in ALL metabolic processes
oxidation vs reduction
- oxidation = electron removal
- reduction = electron addition
what two steps take place in a chemical reactions
- oxidation removal of hydrogen
- reduction addition of hydrogen
a non-protein structure that assist enzymes
- dramatically increase rate of chemical reaction
- lower activation energy of reaction
- THIS IS WHAT AN ENZYME IS
the active site on a molecule that enzymes attach too
coenzymes or prosthetic groups
prosthetic groups =
- enzyme and cofactor are bound tightly/permanently
- ie heme group
coenzyme as aa cofactor are
- looe association between enzyme and cofactor
- ie NAD+/NADH
molecule upon which an enzyme acts
- the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy
- MAKING ATP
what is starting material of cellular respiration
description of respiration and glucose association
Respiration is the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy. The starting material of cellular respiration is the sugar glucose, which has energy stored in its chemical bonds. You can think of glucose as a kind of cellular piece of coal: chock-full of energy, but useless when you want to power a stereo. Just as burning coal produces heat and energy in the form of electricity, the chemical processes of respiration convert the energy in glucose into usable form.
- the usable form of energy produced by respiration.
- take sugar (coal) and turn it into usable form (ATP)
how do RNA and ATP differ
- RNA has one phosphate
- ATP has 3
what happens when cell needs energy
When the cell needs energy, it removes phosphates from ATP by hydrolysis, creating energy and either adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which has two phosphates, or adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which has one phosphate.
- DO NOT NEED O2
- first step of cellular respiration
two types of respiration are
aerobic and anaerobic
aerobic cell respiration is
- Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. More precisely, this process involves six oxygen molecules for every sugar molecule:
- • 6O2 + C6H12O6-----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy
- • This general equation for aerobic respiration (which you should know for the test) is actually the product of three separate stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
what is the first stage of aerobic respiration
what is the first stage of anaerobic respration
how many oxygen molecules for every sugar in aerobic respiration
six O2 molecules for every sugar
where does glycolysis take place
cytoplasm of the cell
in glycolysis ATP is used to
split glucose molecules into a 3 carbon compound called pyruvate
net gain on glycolysis =
main goal of glycolysis is
to get 2 NADH molecules to send to the mitochondria for (krebs cycle and electron transport chain)
anaerobic respiration = another word for is
things to know about glycolysis
- • Glycolysis is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
- • Glycolysis splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons.
- • In glycolysis, a 2 ATP investment results in a 4 ATP payoff.
- • Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
- • Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, glycolysis does not require oxygen.
what starts the kreb cycle
what is the source of of CO2 we breathe out
the krebs cycle
krebs cycle results in
2 ATP molecules for each glucose molecule
what does the krebs cycle send and where
NADH and FADH2 on to the next step in respiration = electron transport chain
where does krebs cycle take place
- mitochondrial matrix
- the innermost compartment of mitchondria
how many ATP does electron trans chain produce
34 ATP molecules
what is citric acid cycle
krebs cycle can only take place when
O2 is present ecen though it isn't used directly in the cycle
is the Krebs cycle an aerobic process
where does the ETC take place
the inner membrane of the mitochondria for eukaryotes
summary of aerobic respiration =
- • Four ATP molecules are produced by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle combined. The electron transport chain produces 34 ATP. There are 38 total ATP’s produced.
- • The electron transport chain occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria and Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) also occurs in the mitrochondria, but in the mitrochondria matrix.
- • Glycolysis can be aerobic or anaerobe. The Kreb’s Cycle is considered aerobic, and the electron transport chain requires oxygen.
- • Prokaryotes have no mitochondria, but carry out a process similar to Electron Transport between the cell wall and cell membrane(s) using the periplasmic space. They carry out a similar process to the Kreb’sCycle in the cytoplasm. They carry out Glycolysis in the cytoplasm also, just like Eukaryotes.
anaerobic respiration is
do prokaryotes have mitochondria
in the absence of oxygen organisma continue to carry out...
glycolysis (doesn't require O2)
2 types of fermentation are
- lactic acid fermintation
- alcoholic fermintation
lactic acid fermintation is common in
fungi and bacteria human muscle cells
Prokaryotes have no mitochondria, but carry out a process similar to Electron Transport where ?
between the cell wall and the cell membrane using the periplasmic space.
where do prokaryotes carry out glycolysis
in the cytoplasm
prokaryotes have a similar process to the krebs cycle which is carried out where
in the cytoplasm
why do anaerobic organisms need fermentation?
- they have to have a way to turn NADH back to NAD+ for glycolysis.
- they need this because Aerobic organisms use O to turn NADH to NAD+
since glycolysis needs NAD+to start where does it get it
the electron transport chain turns NADH back into NAD+ with the aid of oxygen
the incomplete oxidation of glucose in absence of O2.
what happens in lactic acid fermentation
pyruvate is converted to a three carbon compound called lactic acid.
alcoholic fermentation =
pyruvate +NADH----> ethyl alcohol + NAD+ + CO2
two types of fermentors
- facultative anaerobes
- strict fermentors
what are facultative anaerobes
- microbes that ferment in the absence of oxygen
- and perform respiration in the presence of oxygen
- (this is why the facultative anaerobes grew throughout the thygilocolate tube)
strict fermenters are
- microbes that do not have repiration
- ie yeast
what specifically does glycolysis do to glucose
splits glucose (a six carbon compound) into 2 pyruvate (a 3 carbon compound)
what does glycolysis invest to split glucose
In glycolysis 2 ATP investment results in
4 ATP so net gain of 2 ATP
Unlike the rest of cellular respiration glycolysis does not require what
How many ATP produced by cellular respiration and where?
- 38 total
- 2 - glycolysis
- 2 - Krebs cycle
- 34 - Electron transport chain
where does ETC take place
across the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Where does Krebs cycle take place
in mitochondrial matrix
which part of cellular respiration are aerobic and anaerobic?
- Krebs and ETC = aerobic
- glycolysis = aerobic or anaerobic
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