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what are the main systems affected by inorganic arsenic?
- GI : gastroenteritis and collapse;
- (more deadly than lead) acute can be death w/in 12-18hr ingestion
what are some diagnostic tools for inorganic arsenic?
- garlic odor to breath/GI contents
- test urine; GI signs
how do you treat inorganic arsenic toxicosis?
- DMSA (succimer) = antidote
- and sodium thiosulfate
- (poor prognosis)
What is main system affected by organic arsenic? when do clinical signs start?
- PNS (ataxia, remain alert, photosensitization, blindness)
- within 7 days of excess in feed
what is treatment for organoaresenic toxicosis?
water = antidote
mercury, though not common poisoning, is usually encountered through what source?
- used in seed dressings as fungicide
- mercury iodide was used as "blister"
- sewage, fossil fuels
Mercury can be found in what excretions?
urine, also feces, milk ,and sweat
similar to other metals, what is mechanism for mercury toxicosis?
inhibits enzymes with sulfhydrl groups
what are major clinical signs associated with mercury poising?
- inorganic causes gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, stomatitis,
- Acute nephritis
what is treatment for mercury poisoning?
Antidotes = sodium thiosulfate or DMSA (Succimer)
Copper is acquired from feed and feed additives. does this lead to acute or chronic toxicosis?
cumulative, chronic poisoning leads to acute signs
where does copper accumulate in the body? what is method for excretion?
- accumulates in liver (esp. in sheep) and RBCs (sheep and goats)
- feces contain much of the ingested dose
what is mechanism for toxicosis with copper?
- hemolysis (attached to RBCs) and Heinz body formation
- free radical formation and *methemoglobin*
- kidneys fail --> death
which species is susceptible to hemolytic syndrome associated with Copper toxicity? Which species gets more chronic wasting and NO hemolytic syndrome?
- sheep get hemolysis
- dogs: chronic wasting
what is treatment for Copper?
- add molybdenum to feed
- antidote = Molybdenum salt licks
which species is most susceptible to Molybdenum toxicity? what other metal is inversely related to this?
How does molybdenum lead to bone defects?
collagen defects and competes with phosphorous
what are clinical signs for molybdenum toxicity?
- persistent, severe malodorous, green scouring with gassy bubbles
- depigmentation of coat (speckles around eyes)
- achromotrichia (black cow turns gray)
what is treatment for molybdenum toxicity?
What are signs of salt toxicity?
convulsions, recumbency, paddling, head pressing, death
what is post mortem finding associated with salt poisoning?
eosinophilic meningo-encephalitis, brain edema
what is antidote for salt toxicity?
Iron toxicity is commonly found in which species?
what are clinical signs following oral ingestion of iron? How do these symptoms change with time?
- drowsiness, vomiting (brown to bloody)
- *apparent recovery* if survive first 6 hours then symptoms worsen
what would post mortem evaluation of oral iron toxicity reveal?
- mucosal necrosis, HGE
- congestion in liver, kidney, splanchnic vessels
how do you treat iron toxicity?
antidote = chelation therapy with desferroxamine
What micronutrient is a common soil constituent that accumulates and plants and leads to chronic toxicity?
Selenium can replace what element in amino acids, resulting in abnormal proteins? Selenium can also attach to what, which leads to decreased ATP and O2 utilization?
- attaches to SH (sulfhydryl) groups