What type of organization allows more power to the employee but has the drawbacks of keeping employees motivated and advancing in position?
Wide Span of Control=Flat organization
What organizational structure has many levels of authority relative to the organization's size?
Tall structures; narrow span of control
What organizational structure allows for managers to closely supervise employees and allow more opportunities for advancement but have the drawbacks of employees not being able to make decisions without supervision?
Narrow Span of control= tall organization
What organizational structures have few levels but wide span of control?
What is centralization?
the process of retaining authority in the hands of high-level managers, who make all the decisions
What type of organization have top-level managers retain decision-making authority?
What is the process of distributing authority throughout the organization, where members of an organization have the permission to make a decision without obtaining approval from a higher level manager?
Decentralized operations puts more authority at lower levels and leads to _____organizations.
What is a work analysis?
The procedure through which you determine the duties of jobs and characteristics of people who should be hired for them
What is the purpose of a work analysis?
Describe observable behaviors
don't make it personal
hold up under scrutiny
What are the procedures of a work analysis?
1. collect and record job information
2. Check for accuracy
3. Determine what the job involves (task, activities, behaviors, duties)
4. Determine what the job requires (knowledge, abilities, skills, & other characteristics as they apply: KSAOC's)
5. Write descriptions and specifications
What is a determination of exactly what tasks must be performed to complete the work?
What are the characteristics of job design?
What job design characteristic reduces the number of task that each employee performs resulting in job specialization? What does this lead to for the employee?
employee becomes proficient in task due to repetition ex: assembly line (boring, less involved)
What job design characteristic adds tasks to a job to enhance variety to make it more interesting?
What job design characteristic adds task and level of responsibility (autonomy)?
What job design characteristic has people doing other jobs within organization with same job title and level of skill (take turns doing different jobs)?
What are the 5 core dimensions in a job characteristics model?
What core dimension (job characteristics model) is the number of tasks associated with job title?
What core dimension (job characteristics model) is the degree to which an employee understands how their work contributes to the complete product or service?
What core dimension (job characteristics model) is the degree to which the employee perceives that their work impacts others?
What core dimension (job characteristics model) is being responsible for outcomes of your work; ability to make decisions about the pace and approach to work?
What core dimension (job characteristics model) is access to info about the outcomes of work and progress towards goals?
What is the job characteristics approach/ model?
suggest that jobs should be redesigned to include important core dimensions that increase motivation, performance, and satisfaction, and reduce absenteeism and turnover
What are two types of values?
terminal value: what we aspire to
instrumental values: What we should do
what are hierarchy of values in terms of importance?
What are values in action?
What are two sources of values?
social influence- parents, teachers, authority figures
What describes what we think, feel, and how we choose to behave toward an object?
Intellect and emotion (attitude)
What 3 components do attitudes consist of?
What attitude component deals with the processing of facts, opinions, prior information and experience, and is used to develop the concept or the idea?
What attitude component deals with an emotional attachment to the attitude or one's feelings about the attitude?
What attitude component deals with the willingness to act in a manner that is consistent with the held attitude?
What two attitudes may relate to performance?
satisfaction- how much effort and energy invest in what you do
commitment- loyalty toward company
Cognitive dissonance is when _____and _______ are inconsistent.
attitudes and behavior
What is personality?
a stable pattern of characteristics or traits that influence behavior and describes our uniqueness
-General theory of behavior
-Describes how people behavior similarly
-Stable over time
Are Aspects of ________?
What is the debate between nature vs nurture?
nature- personality is based on heredity ex: twins research
nurture- personality is based on environment(culture, family, and social group membership)
interactive- personality based on both
What are the Big Five personality traits?
1. Conscientiousness: focus one thing at a time
2. Extraversion: measure of where you get your energy
3. Agreeableness: value harmony in relationships
4. Emotional Stability: degree to which you're easily provoked
5. Openness to experience: degree to which you're comfortable to openness and new experiences
What is Jung's Typology?
It identifys different problem solving styles (Career Planning)
-Facts and Data; Tangible information
-Abstract concepts; possibilities; big idea
-Impersonal Analysis; Logic and Reason
-consideration for how decision impacts others' values
-Structured; Decisive; orderly
- Flexible and adaptive; Spontaneous
How we perceive data is _________
sensation vs intuition
How we make decisions is ________
Thinking vs Feeling
How you present yourself to outside world is _____
Judging vs. Perceiving
What is based on Jung's Typology?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
What are the 4 MBTI Dimensions?
What personality type is involved in a chronic struggle to achieve more in less time?
Type A Personality
What personality type is rarely harried or in a rush; feels no need to work or achieve on a clock?
Type B personality
What is the degree to which individuals believe they have control over their lives?
Locus of Control
Locus of control is divided into what two types?
internal- their actions dictates what happens
external- believe things happen because of luck, chance, or fate
What is the perception process?
observing information via the senses
screening the information and selecting what to process
organizing the selected data into patterns for interpretation and response
What is the tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on basis of membership to a particular group?
What is the effect where the perceiver evaluates all dimensions of another person based solely on one impression favorable or unfavorable?
Halo or Horn Effect
What common distortion is assigning your own traits to someone else?
What common distortion is when you protect yourself from other opposing view by rationalizing your own views?
What common distortion is the ideal of expectations; people will perform as your expectations of them?
What is the process of how we explain why people behave why they do?
______says characteristics of the person led to the behavior.
___ says something about the situation caused the person's behavior.
What are the 3 factors that influence whether an attribution will be external or internal?
Distinctiveness- whether the behavior is unusual for that person
Consensus- whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way
Consistency- whether the person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way
_____is when an individual underestimates situational causes and overestimates personal characteristics.