Med Term Ch 4

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Ghoelix
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200794
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Med Term Ch 4
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2013-02-16 12:37:56
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Musculoskeletal system anatomic systematic diagnostic
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Musculoskeletal system anatomic systematic diagnostic terms
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  1. ankyl/o
    Crooked or stiff
  2. arthro/o , articul/o
    Joint
  3. brachi/o
    arm
  4. cervic/o
    neck
  5. chondr/o
    cartilage
  6. cost/o
    rib
  7. crani/o
    skull
  8. dactyl/o
    digit ( finger or toe )
  9. fasci/o
    fascia ( a band )
  10. femor/o
    femur
  11. fibr/o
    fiber
  12. kyph/o
    hump-backed
  13. lei/o
    smooth
  14. lord/o
    bent
  15. lum/o
    loin ( lower back )
  16. my/o , myos/o , muculo/o
    muscle
  17. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  18. oste/o
    bone
  19. patell/o
    knee cap
  20. pelvi/i
    pelvis or hip bone
  21. radi/o
    radius
  22. rhabd/o
    rod-shaped or striated ( skeletal )

    striated means "striped"
  23. sarc/o
    flesh
  24. scoli/o
    twisted
  25. spondyl/o , vertebr/o
    vertebra
  26. ster/o
    sternum
  27. ten/o , tend/o , tendin/o
    tendon
  28. thorac/o
    chest
  29. ton/o
    tone or tension
  30. uln/o
    ulna
  31. appendicular skeleton
    shoulders, pelvis, arms, legs

    appendicular - apendages - arms, legs
  32. axial skeleton
    spine, chest, hyoid

    axial - axis
  33. bone
    specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes
  34. compact bone
    smooth, dense bone tissue on the outer surface of the bone
  35. spongy bone / cancellous bone
    spongy bone in the interior of bones
  36. long bones
    bones of the arms and legs

    bones of the digits are also considered long bones, though the MedTerm book doesn't say this.
  37. short bones
    bones of the wrists and ankles
  38. flat bones
    ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, skull
  39. irregular bones
    bones of the vertebrae and face

    also hyoid
  40. sesamoid bones
    round bones found near joints ( patella, pisiform )
  41. epiphysis / epiphises
    the knobby ends of a long bone
  42. diaphysis / diaphyses
    the long shaft of a bone
  43. metaphysis / metaphyses
    areas of growth and development between diaphyses and epiphyses of long bones during youth.  The growth plates.
  44. endosteum
    membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

    • endo - inside
    • osteo - bone
  45. medullary cavity
    cavity within the shaft of long bones, filled with bone marrow
  46. bone marrow
    soft connective tissue inside medullary cavity
  47. red bone marrow
    makes red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets.  Found in flat bones of adults, and most bones of infants
  48. yellow bone marrow
    gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones, functions as storage for fat tissue, does not make blood cells
  49. periosteum
    fibrous, vascular membrane that covers bone

    • peri - around
    • osteo - bone
  50. articular cartilage
    cartilage on areas of bone that articulate

    cartilage on bone where there is a joint
  51. physis
    • root word
    • "growth"
  52. articulation
    a joint, point where two bones come together
  53. bursa
    firbrous sac betweek certain tendons and bones.  It lined with synovial membrane and secretes synovial fluid.
  54. disc / disk
    flat, plate-like structure made of fibrocartilaginous tissue between vertebra that reduces friction

    the disc in between vertebrae
  55. nucleus pulposus
    soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervetebral disc

    the soft, squishy part in the middle of the disk
  56. ligament
    • flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects BONE to BONE
    • BONE to BONE
  57. synovial membrane
    membrane lining the capsule of a joint
  58. synovial fluid
    joint lubricatin fluid secreted by synovial membrane
  59. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that contract, causing movement of an organ or part of the body
  60. striated ( "striped" ) muscle
    All skeletal muscle is striated.

    Cardiac muscle is striated.

    Cardiac muscle is NOT skeletal muscle, it is CARDIAC muscle.
  61. Skeletal muscle
    • Muscle that moves the skeleton
    • voluntary control
  62. Smooth muscle
    • involuntary muscle found in internal organs
    • involuntary control
  63. cardiac muscle
    muscle tissue that makes up the heart

    involuntary control
  64. origin of muscle
    the end of a muscle that does not move when contracting.  Think of it as the muscle's anchor point.
  65. insertion of muscle
    end of muscle that moves when muscle contracts
  66. tendon
    • band of fibrous tissue that connects MUSCLE to BONE
    • MUSCLE to BONE
  67. fascia
    band of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
  68. anatomical position
    • standing upright
    • facing forward
    • feet pointed forward and slightly apart
    • arms at sides
    • palms facing forward
  69. body planes
    reference planes for indicating location or direction of body parts
  70. coronal plane / frontal plane
    a plane that divides the body into front and back ( anterior and posterior ) portions
  71. sagittal plane
    a plane that divides the body into right and left portions
  72. transverse plane
    a plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions
  73. oblique plane
    an angled plane.  A plane through the body that is not perpendicular or parallel to coronal, sagittal, or transverse planes
  74. anterior / ventral
    • the front of the body
    • towards the front of the body
  75. posterior / dorsal
    • back of body
    • towards the back of the body
  76. anterior-posterior
    from front to back of body
  77. posterior-anterior
    from back to front of body
  78. superior
    above something else, toward the head
  79. cephalic
    toward the head ( or of / dealing with the head )
  80. inferior
    below something else, toward bottom of body
  81. caudal
    towards bottom of body ( towards tail )
  82. proximal
    • at or near origin
    • for the arm; shoulder is proximal.  Shoulder is proximal to elbow.
  83. distal
    • away from the origin
    • for the arm; hand is distal.  Hand is distal to elbow.
  84. medial
    toward the middle
  85. lateral
    towards the side
  86. axis
    imaginary line that runs down the center of the body or down the center of a body part
  87. erect
    standing normal position
  88. decubitus
    lying down, especially in bed
  89. prone
    lying face down and flat
  90. recumbent
    lying down
  91. supine
    lying down on back
  92. flexion
    • bending at the joint so that the angle of the bones is decreased.
    • flexing your arm
    • bending your knee
  93. extension
    • straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increases
    • straightening the arm or leg
  94. abduction
    movement away from body
  95. adduction
    • movement towards body
    • ( ADDing it to body )
  96. rotation
    circular movement around an axis
  97. eversion
    turning outward
  98. inversion
    turning inward
  99. supination
    turning the palm of hand up or forward
  100. pronation
    turning palm of hand down or backward
  101. dorsiflexion
    bending the toes or foot upward
  102. plantarflexion
    bending the toes or foot downward
  103. range of motion (ROM)
    total motion possible in a joint
  104. goniometer
    • instrument used to measure joint angles
    • "gonio" - angle
  105. arthralgia
    joint pain
  106. atrophy
    shrinking of muscle size
  107. crepitation / crepitus
    grating sound sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones
  108. exostosis
    projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
  109. flaccid
    flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
  110. hypertrophy
    increase in size of tissue, such as muscle
  111. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone or tension
  112. myalgia / myodynia
    muscle pain
  113. ostealgia / osteodynia
    bone pain
  114. rigor / rigidity
    stiffness, stiff muscle
  115. spasm
    • drawing in(?)
    • involuntary contraction of muscle
  116. spastic
    uncontrolled contraction of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements
  117. tetany
    • tension
    • prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
  118. tremor
    • shaking
    • rhythmic muscular movement
  119. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  120. arthritis
    • inflammation of joints
    • characterized by:
    • pain
    • swelling
    • redness
    • warmth
    • limitation of motion

    there are more than 100 types of arthritis
  121. osteoarthritis / degenerative arthritis / degenerative joint disease
    • most common form of arthritis
    • especially affecting weight-bearing joints
    • characterized by erosion of articular cartilage
  122. rheumatoid arthritis
    • most crippling form of arthritis
    • characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation
    • most often affects joints and synovial membranes ( especially in hands and feet )
    • causes ankylosis and deformity
  123. gouty arthritis
    • acute attacks of arthritis
    • usually affects single joint ( especially big toe )
    • caused by hyeruricemia ( excessive level of uric acid in the blood )
  124. bony necrosis / sequestrum
    • bone tissue that has died from lack of blood supply
    • can occur after a fracture
  125. bunion
    • swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe
    • caused by inflammation of the bursa
  126. bursitis
    inflammation of the bursa
  127. chondromalacia
    softening of cartilage
  128. epiphysitis
    inflammation of epiphyses of long bones
  129. fracture
    broken or cracked bone
  130. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open wound
  131. open fracture
    • compound fracture
    • broken bone with an open wound
  132. simple fracture
    • nondisplaced fracture ( pieces of bone stay in normal position ) with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
    • a hairline fracture
  133. complex fracture
    displaced fracture ( pieces of bone have moved from their normal position ) that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  134. fracture line
    • the line of the break in the bone
    • oblique - at an angle to axis of bone
    • transverse - across the axis of bone
    • spiral - kind of around the bone
  135. comminuted fracture
    broken in many small pieces
  136. greenstick freacture
    • bending and incomplete break of a bone
    • most often seen in children whose bones are still a bit flexible
  137. herniated disc
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented invertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  138. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  139. myostisis
    muscle inflammation
  140. myoma
    muscle tumor
  141. leiomyoma
    smooth muscle tumor
  142. leiomyhosarcoma
    malignant smooth muscle tumor
  143. rhabdomyoma
    skeletal muscle tumor
  144. rhabdomyosarcoma
    malignant skeletal muscle tumor
  145. muscular dystrophy
    category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles
  146. osteoma
    bone tomor
  147. osteosarcoma
    malignant bone tumor
  148. osteomalacia
    disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vit D deficiency
  149. rickets
    • osteomalacia in children
    • causes bone deformity
  150. osteomyelitis
    infection of bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation
  151. osteoporosis
    • decreased bone density and increased porocity ( bones become more porous / larger pores )
    • causes bones to become brittle and fracture more easily
  152. spinal curvatures
    curvatures of the spine
  153. kyphosis
    • abnormal posterior curvature of THORACIC spine
    • humpback
  154. lordosis
    • abnormal ANTERIOR curvature of LUMBAR spine
    • swayback condition
  155. scoliosis
    • abnormal LATERAL curvature of the spine
    • S-shaped curve
  156. spondylolisthesis
    • forward slipping of lumbar vertebra
    • "listhesis" = slipping
  157. spondylosis
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
  158. sprain
    injury to a LIGAMENT caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
  159. subluxation
    partial dislocation
  160. tendinitis / tendonitis
    inflammation of tendon
  161. electromyogram ( EMG )
    • neurodiagnostic graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and during contraction
    • used to diagnose nueuromusculoskeletal disorders
    • usually performed by a neurologist
  162. magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI )
    • A non-ionizing ( no x-rays ) imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures
    • useful in orthopedic studies to detect joint, tendon, and veterbral disc disorders
  163. nuclear medicine imaging / radionuclide organ imaging / bone scan
    nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a tumor, malignancy, etc.
  164. radiography
    • an imaging modality using x-rays
    • commonly used in orthopedics to visualize extremities, ribs, shoulders, joints
  165. arthrogram
    radiograph of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium
  166. computed tomography ( CT )
    specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of cross-sectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image
  167. sonography
    • ultrasound imaging
    • nonionizing technique that is useful in orthopedics to visualize muscles, ligaments, displacements, dislocations, or to guid a therapeutic intervention, such as one performed during arthroscopy
  168. amputation
    • complete or partial removal of a limb
    • AKA = above knee amputation
    • BKA = below knee amputation
  169. arthrocentesis
    puncture for aspiration of a joint
  170. arthroplasty
    repair or reconstruction of a joint
  171. arthroscopy
    procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within.
  172. bone grafting
    transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
  173. bursectomy
    excision of a bursa
  174. myoplasty
    repair of muscle
  175. open reduction, internal fixation ( ORIF ) of a fracture
    internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them in place with devices such as plates, screws, and pins
  176. osteoplasty
    repair of bone
  177. osteotomy
    incision of bone
  178. spondylosyndesis
    spinal fusion
  179. tenotomy
    division of a tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by a shortening of a muscle
  180. closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture
    external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment ( ouch ), along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing
  181. casting
    use of a stiff, solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing
  182. splinting
    • use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured body part
    • provides less support than a cast, but can be adjusted more easily to accommodate swelling from an injury
  183. traction ( Tx )
    application of a pulling  force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
  184. closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture
    • external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain position
    • often includes use of an external device called a "fixator" to keep the fracture immobilized during healing
  185. orthosis
    • use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support
    • i.e. a back, knee, or wrist brace
  186. physical therapy ( PT )
    • treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury which can involve many different modalities ( methods ) such as:
    • exercise
    • hydrotherapy
    • diathermy
    • ultrasound
  187. prosthesis
    artificial replacement for a missing body part, or, a device used to improve body function, such as an artificial limb, hip, or joint
  188. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain
  189. narcotic
    a potent analgesic with addictive properties
  190. antiinflammatory
    a drug that reduces inflammation
  191. antipyretic
    a drug that relieves fever
  192. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug ( NSAID )
    • a group of drugs with analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic properties, commonly used to treat arthritis
    • ibuprofen
    • aspirin

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