General Science

Card Set Information

Author:
datng8
ID:
200798
Filename:
General Science
Updated:
2013-02-19 17:00:13
Tags:
ASVAB
Folders:

Description:
plant and animal terminology for the ASVAB test
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user datng8 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Cells
    • - the basic unit of life.
    • - human body over 75 trillion cells.
  2. Prokaryotic
    • - one of the type of cells.
    • - has no membrane-bound structures inside the cell.
    • - Ex: bacteria
  3. Eukaryotic
    • - one of two types of cell.
    • - has internal membrane-bound structure inside the cell.
    • - Ex: protists, fungi, plans, and animals.
  4. Cells are made of several different parts:
    including an outer membrane, organelles, and a large amount of mass called cytoplasm.
  5. Cell Membrane
    • - is the dictator of the cell
    • - it determines what goes into or out of the cell.
  6. Cytoplasm
    - a gelatin-like material that fills the cell.
  7. Organelles
    • - specialized parts that move around the cell and perform functions that are necessary of life.
    • - Ex: cell nucleus, vacuoles, and mitochondria
  8. Nucleus
    • - membrane that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
    • - the most prominent organelle in the cell.
    • - contain chromosomes that are made up of DNA.
  9. Vacuoles
    • - the storage containers of the cell.
    • - may store waste until it is eliminated or food unit it is needed.
  10. Mitochondria
    - energy for the cell is produced by mitochondria through a process called respiration.
  11. The basic difference between plant and animal
    plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, and animal cells do not.
  12. Cell Walls
    • - only in plant.
    • - gice the cell a firmer shape and support.
  13. Chloroplast
    • - organelles in plant cell.
    • - these contain chlorophyll, which uses the process of photosynthesis to make food for the plant cells.
  14. Photosynthesis process
    •                     Light
    • Carbon Dioxide + Water => Glucose + Oxygen
    •                  Chlorophyll
  15. DNA (deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    • - determines how one looks and how one functions.
    • - DNA molecule consists of two long strands that form a double helix.
    • - DNA has a sugar component, a phosphate component, and four different bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).
  16. Adenine is always pair with
    Thymine
  17. Cytosine is always pair with
    Guanine
  18. Genes
    • - the instruction for the appearance and function of the new organism are contained in units called genes
    • - which are parts of DNA.
  19. Mitosis
    • - one of two reasons for the cell division.
    • - when cells are repacing themselves beucase they are old or worn-out.

    Chart

    • - for cell division
    • - nucleus divides once
    • - number of cells formed = 2
    • - chromosomes in each new cell = 46
  20. Meiosis
    • - one of two reasons for cell division.
    • - takes place with sex cell formation.
    • - cells with only 23 chromosomes are formed so that when an egg and a sperm join up, they have the full set of 46 chromosomes.

    Chart

    • - for sex cell formation
    • - nucleus divides twice
    • - number of cells formed = 4
    • - chromosomes in each new cell =23
  21. Viruses
    • - a piece of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coating.
    • - do not have a nucleus or other organelles.
    • - need host in order to reproduce and function.
    • - cannot generate or store energy, but take their energy from the host.
    • - all viruses contain nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA (but not both), and a protein coat.
  22. Scientist use an ordered ______ (classification system) to classify living things.
    Taxonomy
  23. The levels within Taxonomy (descending order)
    • - kingdom
    • - phylum/division
    • - class
    • - order
    • - family
    • - genus
    • - species
  24. All life is categorized into five kingdoms
    • - monera
    • - protista
    • - fungi
    • - plantae
    • - animalia
  25. Monera
    • - (five kingdoms)
    • - one-celled or a colony of cells, decomposes and parasites, move in water, and both producers and consumers.
    • - Ex: bacteria, blue green algae
  26. Protista
    • - (five kingdoms)
    • - one celled or multicelled, absorb food , move with flagella, both asexual and sexual reproduction, producers and consumers.
    • - Ex: plankton, algae, amoeba, protozoans
  27. Fungi
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - one-celled and multicelled, decomposes, parasites, absorb food, asexual, reproduction and budding, consumers.
    • - Ex: mushrooms, molds, mildew, yeast, fungi
  28. Plantae
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - multicelled, photosynthesis, mostly producers
    • - Ex: angiosperms, gymnosperms, mosses, ferns
  29. Animalia
    • - (five kingdom)
    • - multicelled, parasites, prey, both asexual and sexual reproduction, consumers.
    • - Ex: sponges, worms, insects, starfish, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, gorilla, humans.
  30. Human beings can be categorized according to taxonomy in this way:
    • - kingdom -> animalia
    • - phylum/division -> chordates
    • - class -> mammals
    • - order -> primates
    • - family -> hominidae
    • - genus -> homo
    • - species -> sapiens
    • - Scientific Names -> Homo sapiens
  31. Producer
    • - use an outside energy source, such as sunlight, to produce energy.
    • - most producers have chlorophyll (plant, but not all)
  32. Consumer
    - cannot make their own energy; to live, they need to eat other organisms
  33. Botany
    - scientific study of plants.
  34. Vascular
    - plants transport water from the roots to the stems and to the leaves by means of tubelike structures.
  35. Nonvascular
    - plants absorb water only through their surfaces.
  36. Cotyledon
    - seeds store food for the growing plant; the part of the seed that stores the food.
  37. Monocots
    - seeds have one cotyledon.
  38. Dicots
    - seeds have two and more cotyledon.
  39. Annuals
    • - plants go through their entire life cycle, for germination through seed production to death, in one growing season.
    • - Ex: corn, zinnias, beans, marigolds, and mums all have to be plant each year.
  40. Biennials
    • - plan have life cycle of two years.
    • - Ex: onions, raspberries, hollyhocks, and carrots.
  41. Perennial
    • - plant live for many years.
    • - parts of the plant may die back during the winter, but the plant will grow back in the spring.
  42. Deciduous
    • - plant, including shrubs and trees, lose their leaves in the winter.
    • - Ex: maple and oak
  43. Evergreen
    - plant keep their leaves or needles throughout the year, sometimes shedding only old leaves or needles that are more than two years old.
  44. Root
    - absorbing nutrients and water, anchoring the plant into the soil, holding up the stem and leaves, and storing food.
  45. There are two types or root systems:
    -taproot system and a fibrous root system.
  46. Taproot system
    • - has one fat or sturdy root, with just a few branching roots.
    • - Ex: carrots, radishes, and parsnips.
  47. Fibrous root system
    - has many branched roots.
  48. Stem
    • - main trunk of a plant
    • - major functions of the stem is to move water, nutrients, and food through the plant. (using vascular system)
  49. Phloem tubes
    - move food from the roots through the stem to the leaves.
  50. Xylem tubes
    - move minerals and water.
  51. Leaves
    - major job is to make food for the plant.
  52. Cuticle
    • - a protective layer on leaves.
    • - it reduces the evaporation of the water from the plant and helps to protect the plant from disease-causing organisms.
  53. Stomata
    • - a tiny opening on leaves.
    • - it enable the plant to take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the atmosphere.
  54. Guard Cells
    - cover the stomata openings and regulate the exchange of water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide into and out of the stoma
  55. Flowers
    - the main job of flowers is sexual reproduction or seed production.
  56. Pistil
    • - is the female portion of the flowers
    • - it includes the stigma, the surface that captures and holds pollen, and style, the area between the stigma and the ovaries.
  57. Stamen
    • - is the make portion of the flower.
    • - it includes the filament that holds the anther.
  58. Anther
    - where the pollen is formed and released.
  59. Tropisms
    - plants respond either positively or negatively to various stimuli (gravity, light, or touch).
  60. Gravitropism
    - plants response to gravity.
  61. Phototropism
    - plants respond to light.
  62. Categorizing animals
    - animals are generally categorized in terms of whether or not they have backbone.
  63. Vertebrates
    - animal that have backbone.
  64. Invertebrates
    • - animal do not have backbone.
    • - Ex: worm
  65. Mollusks
    • - invertebrates, like snails, have soft bodies, but have developed a hard shell for protection.
    • - can live in water or on land
    • - Ex: snails, clams, mussels, and squid.
  66. Exoskeletons
    • - invertebrates have tough coatings made of chitin on the outside of their bodies.
    • - they also have joined legs and segmented body.
    • - aka. arthopods.
    • - Ex: centipedes, millipedes, insect, shrimp, lobsters, and crabs.
  67. Herbivores
    - animals that primarily eat plants.
  68. Carnivores
    - animal that feed mostly on meat.
  69. Omnivores
    - animal (human) eat both plants and meat.
  70. Molar teeth
    - teeth are designed for grinding tough plant fibers.
  71. Cold-blooded animal
    • - if animal's body temperature follows or matches the external temperature around it.
    • - Ex: fish, amphibians, and reptiles.
  72. Warm-blooded animal
    • - animal can control their body temperature.
    • - Ex: only bird and mammals.
    • - mammals use their hair, skin, or fur to adapt to temperature changes.
  73. Biosphere
    - the sum of all the places on Earth where life can exist.
  74. Ecosystem
    - collection of all the living creatures and nonliving features or conditions in a particular environment.
  75. Ecology
    - the study of ecosystem - the interactions between and among these living creatures and nonliving features.
  76. Biodiversity
    • - is the variety of life forms that exist.
    • - biodiversity tends to increase as one approaches the equator.
    • - warmer weather tends to support biodiversity.
  77. Global warming
    • - resulting from sending carbon dioxide into the atmosphere can raise temperatures and affect biodiversity.
    • - the thinning of the ozone layer in the atmosphere can increase the amount of ultraviolet radiation (UV) the reaches Earth.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview