A&P Bones and Skeletal Tissues Chapter 6

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  1. What is the skeleton initially made of before it ossifies?
    Cartilages and fibrous connective tissues
  2. What is the layer of dense irregular tissue that surrounds cartilage? It resist outward expansion when cartilage is compressed and contains blood vessels which provides cartilage with nutrients.
    perichondrium (around the cartilage)
  3. What cartilage provides support with flexibility and resilience and is the most abundant of the 3 cartilages?
    Hyaline Cartilages
  4. A type of hyaline cartilage that covers the ends of most bones and movable joints
    articular cartilages
  5. A type of hyaline cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum.
    Costal cartilages
  6. a type of hyaline cartilage that is located in the larynx, trachea and other respiratory passageways
    respiratory cartilages
  7. a type of hyaline cartilage that supports the external nose
    nasal cartilages
  8. What type of skeletal cartilage is only found in the external ear  and epiglottis?
    Elastic cartilages
  9. What are the 3 types of cartilage tissue?
    • Hyaline cartilages
    • Elastic cartilages
    • Fibrocartilages 
  10. What type of skeletal cartilage is highly compressible  and consist of parallel row of chondrocytes and thick collagen fibers? located in the menisci,IVD and pubic symphysis
  11. What are the two ways cartilage grows?
    • appositional growth (from the outside)
    • interstitial growth (from the inside)
  12. cartilage growth that is cartilage forming due to the production of cartilage matrix on the outside of the tissue is know as what?
    appositional growth
  13. cartilage growth that expands the cartilage matrix from the inside due to the division of chondrocytes and their secretion of new matrix is known as what?
    interstitial growth
  14. What are the 2 divisions of the human skeleton?
    • Axial 80 bones
    • appendicular 126 bones
  15. What skeletal division protects and supports and includes the skull, vertebral column and rib cage?
    axial skeleton
  16. What skeletal division has locomotive and manipulative functions and includes lower and upper extremities and their girdles?
    appendicular skeleton
  17. What shapes classify bones?
    • Long
    • short (sesamoid)
    • flat
    • irregular
  18. The internal cavity of a long bone containing yellow fatty marrow is known as what?
    Medullary cavity 
  19. The end of long bones lined with hyaline cartilage on joint surfaces is know as what?
  20. what structure lines the internal wall of a long bone?
  21. The outer external dense irregular connective tissue that covers the diaphysis (shaft) of a long bone is known as what?
  22. Wrist and ankle bones are considered what type of bone?
    Short (cubed shaped)
  23. a type of short bone that protects tendons from wear and tear is known as what? includes patella and pisiform
    sesamoid bones
  24. a complicates shaped bone such as the vertebra and facial bones is known as what type of bone?
    irregular shape
  25. bones that consist of dipole and include the sternum,scapula and ribs is what type of bone?
    flat bones
  26. in flat bone a spongy bone is called what?
  27. The wider part at the end of a long bone adjacent to the epilphyseal disc (plate)
  28. What is the epiphyseal plate cartilage?
    growth plate located in long bones and made of hyaline cartilage. It lengthens bones by way of interstitial growth, expanding the cartilage from the inside and completely ossifies between the ages of 18 and 23.
  29. Projections of the bone that are sites of muscle and ligament attachment:
    • tuberosity 
    • tubercle
    • crest
    • trochanter
    • line
    • epicondyle
    • spine
    • process
  30. Projections of the bone that help form the joints:
    • head
    • facet
    • condyle
    • ramus
  31. depressions and openings in the bone:
    • groove
    • fissure
    • foramen
    • notch
    • meatus
    • sinus
    • fossa
  32. What organic substance makes up 1/3 of the bone matrix and includes ground substance and collagen fiber which are made and secreted by osteoblasts?
  33. Organic components of the bone include:
    • osteogenic cells
    • osteoblasts
    • osteocytes
    • osteoclasts
    • bone lining cells
    • osteoid (organic part of the matrix)
  34. Inorganic Components of the bone include:
    • mineral salts (largely calcium phosphates) 
    • Provides hardness to the bone
  35. What organic component breaks down bone?
  36. actively mitotic bone forming cells that produce bone matrix by secreting the osteoid?
  37. mitotically active bone stem cells found in the periosteum and endosteum are know as what?
  38. Mature bone cells that maintains the bone matrix is know as what?
  39. Red marrow is located in the trabecular cavity of what type of bone?
  40. red marrow is located in the dipole of what type of bone?
  41. red marrow is located in the epiphyses and medullary cavity in what type of bone?
  42. The structural unit of compact bone that runs parallel to the long axis of the long bone and is pillars of support is know as what?
    osteons or Haversian systems
  43. Each hollow tube of bone matrix found in an osteon is known as what?
  44. What structure runs through the core of each osteon and contains blood vessels and nerves?
    Central Canal or Haversian Canal
  45. what canal runs perpendicular to the haversian canals and connects blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to those in the centeral canals and medullary cavity?
    perforating canal or Volkmann's canals
  46. Incomplete lamella that fills in spaces or lies between osteons is known as what?
    interstitial lamallae
  47. external rings that surround and form osteons,located just deep to the periosteum and superficial to the endosteum is know as what?
    circumferential lamellae
  48. Bone formation
  49. Bone hardening, occurs during bone formation and bone remodling
  50. When a bone is developed from fibrous membrane and the bone is called membrane bone this is what type of ossification?
    intramembranous ossification
  51. what type of ossification forms the skull, clavicle,scapula,ribs,sternum and jaw...mostly flat bones?
    intramembranous ossification
  52. What are the 4 major steps to Intramembranous ossification?
    • 1.Ossification center form 
    • 2.osteoid is secreted by osteblasts and calcifies
    • 3. trabeculae and periosteum is formed
    • 4. lamellar bone replaces woven bone
  53. what type of ossification develops bone by replacing hyaline cartilage , the bone is called cartilage/endochondral bone.
    • endochondral ossification
    • (more complex than than intramembranous ossification, hyaline cartilage must be broken down as ossification proceeds)
  54. Process of Endochondral ossification:
    • Osteoblasts secrete osteoid, bone collar forms around diaphysis
    • Cartilage center of diaphysis deteriorates forming cavities (medullary cavity)
    • periosteal bud invades the forming epiphysis, forming spongy bone
    • diaphysis elongates as epiphyseal cartilage grows
    • epiphysis ossifies and metaphysis continues to grow until puberty 
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A&P Bones and Skeletal Tissues Chapter 6

Chapter 6
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