law psych

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law psych
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  1. risk assessment
    • future offense
    • civil - oneself or others
    • criminal - sexual offence

    • during sentencing
    • release
  2. clinical decision making (unstructred clinical judgement )
    • ideographic (individual)
    • qualitative (subjective)
    • focus on individual risk
    • easy
    • inwxpensive
    • flexible
    • adaptable
    • consider rare and important statistics
    • reweigh infomation on case info

    • no consistancy
    • lack of transparency
    • broad
    • low validity
    • unclear foundation
    • limited evidence
  3. actuarial decision making
    • nomothetic
    • quantitative
    • VRAG
    • GSIR
    • ICT

    • algorithmic objective
    • accurate
    • professional through formulaic approach
    • pre determined risk factors
    • set of structured rules
    • asess personal dispositons
    • depression bipolar borderline personaliy disorder
    • predictive

    • empiricak
    • consistancy
    • transparent

    • disregard factor
    • less useful in other populations
    • focus on risk factors

    • time and effort
    • not useful for all types of populations
  4. structural professional judgement
    • clinical and actuarial
    • same set of risk factor
    • own professional experience to balace actualrial prediction
  5. risk factors that relate to increase in violence
    • o  
    • past violent
    • behavior

    • o  
    • young age

    • o  
    •  relationship instability

    • o  
    •  employment instability

    • o  
    •  Substance use


    • o  
    • major mental
    • disorder

    • o  
    •  psychopathy

    • o  
    • early home or
    • school maladjustment

    • o  
    • personality
    • disorder

    • o  
    •  violations of conditional release

    • o  
    •  escapes or attempted escapes from
    • incarceration

    • o  
    •  lack of insight

    • o  
    • negative
    • attitudes

    • o  
    •  personality states

    • o  
    •  psychiatric symptomatology;

    • o  
    • behavioral and
    • affective instability;

    • o  
    • unresponsiveness
    • to treatment;

    • o  
    • lack of
    • feasible release plan

    • o  
    • access to
    • victims, weapons

    • o  
    •  drugs

    • o  
    • alcohol;

    • o  
    • lack of support
    • and supervision

    • o  
    •  noncompliance with medication or other treatment

     and stress.
  6. actuarial risk assessment
    • actuarial
    • appraisal guide VRAG
    • violence prediction scheme VPS
  7. structured professional . clinical
    • hcr- 20
    • spousal assault risk assessment SARA
    • sexuak violence risk SVR-20

    • assist evaluator ti reach
    • decision
    • specifies process for info gathering
    • clinical judgement
    • consistant
    • structured
    • flexible

    required exensive training and professional discretion
  8. psych risk assessment
    • psychopathy
    • link with violent behavior and psychopathic personality disorder
  9. violence risk assessment
    • nature, type
    • seriousness
    • frequency
    • imminence
    • likelihood
    • probability
  10. risk management
    • reduce violent probability
    • through
    • describing conditions
    • sentence
    • release
    • interview,review
  11. dangerous/sexual violent
    indefnite confinement i  of high risk to reoffend
  12. psychopathy
    • affective, interpersonal
    • clinical issue
    • informal and formal consideration
  13. hervey cleckley
    • psychopathy as lacking emotional responsiveness
    • no sense of shame
    • manipulative
    • irresponsible
    • inadequately motivated
    • APD similar
    • interpersonal affective
  14. malingering
    fake symtoms of psych
  15. validity
    • honest and sincere
    • require formal assessment

    informal- close scrunity
  16. 2 malinger
    • psychiatric
    • mental disorder

    • cognitive impairment
    • memory or mental impairment
  17. psychopaths are
    • -         
    • Glib

    • -         
    • Grandiose

    • -         
    •  Callous

    • -         
    • Remorseless

    • -         
    • Reckless

    • -         
    • Manipulative

    • -         
    •  Impulsive

    • -         
    •  Dishonest

    • -         
    •  parasitic,
  18. risk factors
    • influence offenders decisions
    • collective influence of individual thing or elements
    • avg correlation with crime
  19. fixed risk markers
    do not change over time
  20. variable risk markers
    change overtime but do not influence outcome
  21. causal risk factor
    change over time and influence

    • outcome identifiation
    • decision
    • cost- benefit analysis
  22. offender risk management
    prevent crime by influencing risk and protective factors
  23. risk assessment
    • gather info in decision making
    • assess past actions of offenders
    • current funtionality
    • future action

    • why choose to commit crime
    • evaluate for characteristic of probibility for future crime
  24. risk assessent procedure
    • interview , observe
    • testing of psychological . medical
    • review of records
    • interview with family and friends
  25. goal of risk assessment
    • crime prevention
    • reduce future crime
    • public safety
    • consistant results
    • prescriptive
    • identifly, evaluate, prioritize mental health, social service and criminal justice to manage offender
    • open
    • transparent
    • good assessment does not cause offender to commit crime
    • public and offender to scrutinize assessment
    • obvious when improper asessment is conducted
  26. decision making or risk assessment
    • actuarial
    • professional judgement
    • anamnesticc
    • structured professional judgement
  27. actuarial
    • specific data
    • structured samples of behavior to measure personal disposition
    • mechanical and algorithmic
    • quantifly individual standing
    • transparent
    • consistient decisions with tests

    • con
    • needs discretion with psych test
    • appropriate in case or not
    • single test does not constitute to comprehensive evaluation
    • limited info for management and tactics
    • professional efforts on passive crime prediction

    • precision for speciic outcome in specific population in time
    • rational
    • empirical
    • liklihood of future crime
    • transparent

    • con
    • estimate absolute
    • time and effort
    • easy to accord too much weight
    • do not provide necessary infomation to understand error
  28. professional judgement
    • unstructured
    • intuitive experimental
    • common
    • adaptable
    • efficient
    • minimal
    • people centered

    • limit
    • no proof that inuitive decisons are consistant among professionals or are helpful
  29. anamnestic
    patients personal history as a linked event that lead to crime

    understand way to break chain

    • history is repeatable
    • flexible
    • inexpensive
    • adaptable
    • ideograpic account of rare info

    • lack of consistancy transparency
    • low validity
  30. structured professional judgement
    clinical guidelines , consensus, clinical practice parameters
    • state of discipline with scientific knowlege
    • core risk factors
    • qualifications of conducting assessment
  31. level of service case manage inventory
    LSI
    • structured professional judgment SPJ
    • guidelines that assist the assessment and management of risk for general criminality
    • variety of correctional profesionals

    • limit
    • simple definition of risk
    • cant predict specific risk of crime severity or time periods

    • ignores antisocial behavior risk factors
    • drugcrime
    • child abuse
    • exploitation
    • intimate partner violence
    • sexual
    • stalking
    • gang
    • political terroism

    • low attention to mental and sexual disorder
    • for generic male offender sterotype
  32. static-99
    sexual crime
  33. sexual violence risk 20
    sexual offence used with LSI
  34. risk for sexual violence protocol
    used with LSI
  35. strategies or offender risk managment
    • monitoring
    • treatment
    • supervison
    • victim safetly planing
  36. monitoring
    • repeated assessment
    • change in risk over time
    • surveillance over control
    • not intrusive
    • minor contact with offender
    • face to face
    • field visit
    • polygraphic
    • drug test
    • inspection of communication
  37. treatment
    • rebilitative serice
    • psychosocial adjustment
    • training programs on interpersonal anger and  vocational skills

    • change attitudes toward crime
    • individual or group psychotherapy
    • chemical dependency programs
    • psychoactive medications
    • antipsychotics
    • mood stabilizers
  38. supervison
    • restriction of rights and freedoms
    • incapacitation
    • institutionalizm
    • expensive
    • may promote antisocial disorder

    restrictions such as house arrest, travel bans
  39. victim safety planning
    • security of potential victims
    • targeted violence
  40. sec 22 mental health act
    person may be admitted to hospital if patient needs medical treatment carem supervison
  41. sec 11e
    denied bail if is risk to community
  42. sec 735 1a of criminal code
    • person is dangerous offener if sentenced for indeterminate period
    • serious personal injury
    • threat to life, safety or physical or mental well- being
  43. sec 752 criminal code
    • serious personal injury offence
    • indictable offence

    • use or attempt of violence against person
    • endanger or likely to
    • safety of others
    • severe psych damage
    • 10+ sentence
    • sexual assault
  44. sec 731.1 (1)
    • long term offender suject of supervison of less than 10 years after incarceration
    • 2+ year with reoffend risk
  45. remand assessment
    • detain less than 2 year sentence
    • conviced with federal sentence until appeal expires
    • outstanding charges or transfer
    • administrative or legal reasons
  46. brief assessments
    major mental illness and need for short term urget intervention
  47. intake asessment
    • federal institution
    • 2+ year

    • suicide risk
    • harm to others

    • determine
    • security level needed
    • intensity of treatment
    • chances of recidivism
  48. parole and probation
    • parole- conditioned release from federal sentence 
    • probation - conditional release from provincial sentence

    • reoffend risk
    • 1/3 of sentence eligible to apply
    • unless there was min sentence 1st degree murder

     
  49. statutory release
    must be released after 2/3 of sentence unless crown establish reason why
  50. NCRMD
    psych institution= no risk to reoffend
  51. ncrmd risk assessment
    • reliable - repeated by multiple judges
    • transparent - explicit and can be scrutinized by other professionals
  52. violence risk assessment
    • likelihood to commit violent acts
    • interventions (mental health, social servie, criminal justice )
  53. social instability and maladjustment
    • childhood
    • social instability
    • delinquency
    • school malajustment
    • verbal, physical altercations

    • adulthood
    • inability to secure or retain job
    • failure to maintain relationship
  54. estroff zimer , lacchicotte, benoit (1994 0
    large social network = more threats of violence

    • violence as a reaction to percieved agressiveness by others
    • larger network= more likely to occur
  55. substance abuse
    relationship between substance abuse and violence due to :

    • anti social peers
    • violence as necessary to support drug habit
    • drug and alcohol as disinhibitor
    • drugs or alcohol as a nerve calmer before violent act
  56. acute mental disorder
    • relationship between mental disorder and violence not strong unless mental illness  is accompanied
    • co-morbid substance abuse problem
  57. swanson, holzer, ganju, jono 1990
    • violence 5X in population that met dsm-iii axis 1 diagnosis
    • mental disorder higher in jail and prison
    • not all mental disorder(depression. ) = violence

    schizophrenia and mania highly associated with violence
  58. link stueve 1994
    • threat/control override (TCO)
    • rationality within irrationality
    • mental illness override personal control
    • create context for those to act violently
    • more likely to act violent that people without TCO symptoms
  59. Swanson, borum, swartz, monahan 1996
    • tco 2.9 more likely to ingage in violence 18yrs and up
    • 86%with major mental disorder + TCO+ substance abuse = violence
    • 63%with major mental disorder + TCO = violence
    • 39% major mental disorder= violence
    • 17% with no symtoms = violence
  60. personality disorder douglas, ogloff nicholls 1999
    personality disorder = higher chances of violence

    • particular APD
    • apd as behavioral and lacks affective and interpersonal qualities of psychopathy
  61. hodgins cotes 1993
    • apd prisoners have
    • juvenile arrest record
    • younger in first sentence
    • more convictions
  62. sexual deviance
    • sexual paraphillia, arousal to objects, situations or activities that are outside normal
    • high among sexual offenders
  63. hanson and bussiere 1998
    • sexual preference for children = strong relationship to future secual re-offending
    • no association between sexual devience and non-seual violence
  64. rice harris 1997
    • sexual deviants with psychopathy at higher risk for reoffending
    • sexual deviance as small indicator of sexual offence
  65. attribution of violence
    • explanations to given situations and persons
    • increased risk of violence in the future
    • young offenders tend to interpret others behaior as hostile
    • agression as legit and increase self esteem
    • fail to understand violence on victim
    • attribute cause of their violence to external factors
  66. negative attitude and personality states
    • anger, hostility, impulsivity (lack of control over behaviour+ cognition)
    • barratt - prisoners scored higher on his scale of impulsivity
  67. hare 1996
    definition of psychopathy
    • intraspecies predators who use charm, manipulation,
    • intimidation, and violence to control others and to satisfy their own selfish
    • needs. Lacking in conscience and in feelings for others, they cold-bloodedly
    • take what they want and do as they please, violating social norms and
    • expectations without the slightest sense of guilt or regret
  68. 3 factors of psychopathy
    arrogant and deceitful interpersonal (superficial, egocentric, manipulative )

    • deficient affective experience
    • (shallow, callous, lacks remorse )

    • impulsive and irresponsible behavior
    • (impulsive sensation seeking, lacks goals )
  69. link between psychopathy and violence
    mod to high in
    • young offenders
    • mentally ill patients
    • non-mentally ill patients
    • sex offenders
  70. willamson hare wong 1987
    psychopaths direct violence towards male strangers for revenge and retribution

    nonpsychopaths direct violence towards female family for emotional
  71. cornell 1996
    reactive violence even among all violent offenders

    intrumental violence for gain higher among high PCL-R (psychopathy checklist revised)
  72. psychopaths
    • high density
    • more crimes commited
    • verbal and physical violence

    • 10-25 % of prisoner high in pcl - r
    • psychopath and apd
  73. violent recidivism
    • higher and faster among psychopaths
    • hare
    •  high pcl-r recidivated 82% , 38% violent recidivated
    •  lower pcl-r recidivated 40%, 3% violent

    38
  74. hart hare 1996
    relationship between violence and psychopathy
    • cognitive schema - interpret as more hostile
    • biochemical neurological genetic - impulsivity
    • lack of emotional restraint - no empathy , fear ,or guilt
  75. psychopathy treatment
    • less motivated for treatment
    • disruptive behavior
    • highr conviction rate after treatment
    • no successful treatment for psychopaths
  76. correctional psych
    psychological theory and research to correctional system
  77. jail
    • short term facilities
    • charged but not yet onvicted
    • pre- trial
    • short incarcerations
    • fewer treatment options

    identification of problems available  to majority  (mental illness, suicide risk, adjustment problems, medication dispensing )
  78. prison
    • sentence of one year or greater
    • psychotropic medication
    • behavioral/ cognitive treatments
    • maximum security hospitals
    • special sections of regular hospitals
  79. bail
    • pretrial release
    • arrested or charged with criminal offenses
    • released to await trial
    • waiting for sentening
  80. probation
    • conditional sentence
    • criminal offense
    • more serious that community service
    • less serious than imprisonmet
    • fixed 6-several years
    • strict compare to bail
    • alcohol ban, ban of criminal association
  81. parole
    • conditional release from imprisonmemt
    • readjustment to community
    • weeks to years
  82. correctional psych history
    • birth in ww2
    • 1953 aacfp
    • 1970 criminal justice behavior
    • standards for psychology services in adult jails and prisons
  83. ethics of control
    • protection of public safety
    • individual and general deterrence
    • detained and supervised in safe and just manner
  84. ethic of care
    • rehabilitative goals
    • service to help offenders become law abiding and productive members of society
  85. risk factors in crime
    • impulsivity
    • antisocial attitudes
    • educational
    • vocational problems
    • substance abuse
    • anger
    • disturbed family relationship
  86. correctional service canada CSC
    protection of society by encouraging offenders to become law-abiding citizens while exercising reasonable safe secure and human control

    • protecting society
    • law-abiding citizens
    • incarceration is reasonable, humane, and safe
  87. CSC values
    • respect dignity of individuals
    • rights of all members of society
    • human growth and development
    • become law -abiding citizen
    • sharing of idea, knolwdge, values, experience, nationally and internationally .
    • openness, integrity,
  88. csc goals
    • treatment to increase his/her chances of successful reintergration
    • reduce offender's risk to reoffend
    • factors that are correlated with offending
    • treatment of mental illness
  89. corrections and conditional release act
    sec 3
    • sentences by courts through safe and humane custody and supervision of offenders
    • rehabilitaiton of offenders
    • reintergration into community
  90. NCRMD
    • schizophrenia
    • depression
    • mania
    • bipolar disorder
    • 6X more likely than non- MDO to report violent behavior
    • mental disorder defines status and seen as the cause of criminal behavior
    • focus of intervention
    • significant impairment in inmates social functioning
    • rates of mental illness in correctional population are significantly higher
    • mental illness in correctional population are significantly higher
  91. mental illness as not primary
    • contributing factor
    • psychotic disorder 10%

    • moderate mental disorder 15-40%
    • depression
    • anxiety

    substance abuse 90%

    focus on general recidivism
  92. substance abuse individuals
    • substance abuse = not suffering from mental disorder
    • small role
    • mental illness not a treatment target
    • behavioral and cognitive approaches
    • social skill traning
    • behavioral oriented therapy
    • relapse prevention
  93. treatment programs
    • different forms of treatment are effective for different problems
    • reduction of mental illness
    • criminal recidivism
    • both symptoms of mental disorder and criminal behavior
  94. areas of target
    • active psychotic symptoms
    • aggression
    • problems of institutional adjustment
    • criminal propensity
    • depression
    • life skills deficts
    • social withdrawal
    • substance abuse
  95. target of criminogenic needs
    • changeable variables
    • antisocial attitudes , thought patterns
    • procriminal associates
    • personality factors
    • learn self control
    • change attitudes to become more prosocial
    • associate with noncriminal individuals are more effective in reducing the probability that individual will commit crime in high risk treatment
    • match treatment with ability to relate
  96. behavioral treatment
    • specific behaviors of the offender
    • sequence of events or patterns that lead to criminal behavior
    • reduce probability that will lead to violence
  97. psychotic symptoms, reducing aggression, increasinf institutional adjustment, reducing depression
    • behavior treatment
    • skills training
    • pharmacological
  98. criminal propensity, substance abuse, social withdrawal , life-skills deficts
    • behaviour- oriented treatment
    • skills training
  99. sexual offenders
    • behavioural treatment -
    • social competence
    • small proportion of MDO
    • various treatment programs

    • nonbehavioral psychotherapy -little empirical evidence
    • pharmacological- reduce sex drive
    • behavioral, cognitive - behavioral therapy
  100. sexual offender treatment
    • pharmacotherapy reduce sex drive
    • sex drive and reduced reoffending less clear
    • monitor
    • case  management

    • behavior and cognitive
    • normalize deviant preference
    • social competence
  101. substance- abuse offender treatment
    • behavioral
    • relapse prevention
  102. cognitive-behavioral theory
    positive social learning promote pro-social behavior over punishment

    • pre and post- treatment
    • 3-6 month
    • 40-60 % time

    • control structure
    • clear staff responsibilities
    • monitored
  103. cog- behavior target
    • crim thinking and attitudes
    • lifestyle
    • friends
    • aubstance abuse
    • anger
    • agression
  104. cog-behavior goal
    • relevant to offener
    • vary needs
    • responsivity
    • reentry
    • new stressors= relationships
  105. andrews and bonta 1994
    principles of effective intervention
    RNR
    • 1 risk
    • target people according to risk

    • 2 need
    • attack personal needs
    • characteristics the needs the most atteniton

    • 3 responsitivity
    • consistant with offender level
  106. bonta and andrews 2007
    effectiveness of treatment depend on rnr principles

    • up to 10% recidivism if ignore
    • lead to routine evaluation of treatment programs
    • help correctional psych practice in rational and reasonable manner
  107. effect size for program that met rnr standards
    • ,17 instutional
    • .35 community
  108. effect size for treatment that did not meet rnr
    • -.1 instititutional
    • -.02 community
  109. effectiveness on rnr
    only on typical male offenders

    not sec , serious violent, female with mental

    • too much on recidivism
    • no prosocial
    • too much ethics of control
  110. good live treatment
    • expansion of rnr
    • goals of offender
    • neglect of primary goods
    • ineffective strategies
    • conflict strategies
    • 35-40 sessions of 8-10 persons
  111. relaspse prevention
    • rehab to decrease recidivism
    • behavioral
    • crim needs of offender
    • plan
    • monitor
    • prosocial
  112. community treament
    outpatients halfway houses

    • one authority
    • uniform system
    • network of community

    • rights of individual
    • needs of treatment
    • safety of community
  113. program evaluations
    causal

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