Endocrine system

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  1. Five factors needed for survival
    Temp, pressure, nutrients, water, and oxygen
  2. Homeostatis
    Balance needed to maintaine life
  3. Distruption of homeostasis will give
  4. Input: information from the receptor is goes along which pathway
  5. Output: information sent along what pathway to the effector
    efferent pathway
  6. Three elements responsible for homeostasis
    Receptor, control center, and effector
  7. Negative Feedback
    Any change that is opposite the initial change. Ex: high blood sugar/decrease blood sugar
  8. Postive Feedback (cascade)
    • maintaining the initial change
    • Ex: blood clot and contractions
  9. What is the normal range of blood glucose?
    80-99mg per deci liter of blood
  10. Dynamic Satic:
    Homeostasis is ever changing, always trying to blance but never extreme
  11. Endocrin Organs
    Not continuious, ductless, system that secretes hormones (chemical signals)
  12. Autocrine System
    When a cell reacts itself
  13. Paracrine
    When one cell stimulates a nearby cell
  14. Hormones are
    Either proteins (amino acids) or steroids
  15. What activation uses second messenger?
    Indirect activation
  16. The two factors that carry message
    Calcium and CAMP
  17. Direct Activation
    • Hormone comes right into cell, no messenger needed.
    • Only Steroids do this
  18. Half-Time
    Onset duration, how long a hormone is realsed
  19. Permisive
    • One hormone asks another to react.
    • Hormone gives the ok for next to work.
  20. Synergism
    • Both have to go together to get reaction.
    • Enhancing to the max.
  21. Antagonism
    • One works in the response to the other.
    • Opposite, one goes up the other goes down.
  22. Thyroxin
    Is an amino acid based hormone but acts like a steroid by going directly into cell, not through messenger. 
  23. Humoral
    Blood stiumli (blood sugar)
  24. Neural
    Comes from the nervous system
  25. Hormonal
    One hormone telling another to secrete hormone
  26. Pituitary(hypophysis) Gland
    Is in the pineal area and has 2 lobes, antierior lobe and posterior lobe
  27. Anterior Lobe has what type of cells?
    Grandular Cells
  28. What hormones does the anterior lobe secrete?
  29. What are Tropic Hormones?
    • Hormones that tell another gland to secrete other hormones.
    • FSH, LH, ACTH, GH
  30. Posterior Lobe has what type of cells?
  31. What hormones are secreted by the posterior lobe?
    ADH, and Oxytocin
  32. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe
    • Tropic hormone
    • Low- dwarfism in children
    • High- Gagantism in children and Acromegaly (when your body has a lot of secretion after growth stops) in adults.
  33. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe.
    • Tropic Hormone
    • Stimulates thyroid to secrete thyroxine
    • Low- Cretinism in children, stunts growth/mental retardation. And Myxedema in adults, thicking of the skin.

    High- Hyperthyroidism and Grave's disease
  34. Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe.
    • Tropic Hormone
    • Low- rare
    • High- Cushing's Disease- big midsection, small arms/legs
  35. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe.
    • Tropic Hormone.
    • Sex Hormone.
    • Low- failure of sexual maturation.
    • High- no important effect.  Maybe increased libido
  36. Leteinizing Hormone (LH)
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe.
    • Tropic Hormone.
    • Sex Hormone.
    • Low and High are the same as FSH
  37. Prolactin
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the anterior lobe.
    • NOT a tropic hormone.
    • Low- poor milk prodcution.
    • High- Galactorrhea, milk production when not prego.  Effects menses. Impotence and breast enlargment in males (gynecomastia).
  38. Oxytocin
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the posterior lobe.
    • Cuddle hormone/men do produce
    • Regulates concratctions
    • No know affects if low or high
  39. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) also called Vasopressin
    • Secreted by the pituitary in the posterior lobe.
    • Reabsorbes most water in urine at Kidneys, stops your body from peeing.  Alcholol blocks this hormone so you pee alot. 
    • Low- diabetes insipidus (not related to glucose)
    • High- Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH).
  40. The thyroid glad prodcues what two hormones?
    Thyroxin and Calcitonin
  41. What is the fucntion of calcitonin?
    It decreases blood calcium and increases bone calcium
  42. What cells produce thyroglobulin?
    Follical Cells
  43. What follicles are filled with thyroglobulin?
    Collied-filled follicles
  44. What cells produce calcitonin?
    Parafollicular cells
  45. Where are parafollicular cells located?
    In between the follicle cells
  46. What two elements are needed to make thyroxin?
    Thyroglobluin and Iodine
  47. Goiter
    Lack of iodine causes build up of thyroglobulin in thyroid
  48. Graves Disease
    Increased thyroxin
  49. Hosimotoes
    Autoimmune disease (immune system attacks thyroid gland)
  50. Parathyroid glands
    • On top of thyroid
    • 4-8 glands
  51. Which cells secretes parathyroid hormine (PTH)?
    Chief Cells
  52. PTH does what?
    Increases blood calcium and decreases bone calcium.
  53. Osteoclasts
    Kills bone
  54. Where is the adrenal gland located?
    • On top of the kidney
    • Secretes 25 hormones
  55. Medulla
    Middle part of adrenal
  56. Cortex
    Outside of adrenal
  57. What cortidoids does the cortex secrete? (3)
    • Mineralo (mineral)
    • Gluco (sugar)
    • Gonado (reproduct)
  58. Mineralocorticoids
    • Aldosterone
    • Regulates sodium
    • In Cortex
    • Hyper- aldosteronism
    • Hypo- Addison's disease (dehydration symptoms)
  59. Glucocorticoids
    • Cortisol
    • In cortex
    • Hyper- Cushing's disease
    • Hypo- Addison's disease
  60. Gonadocorticoids (reproductive)
    • Testosterone
    • In cortex
    • Hyper- Virilization of females called Adrenogenital syndrome- male characteristics in females. 
    • Hypo- no effect
  61. Catecholamines
    • Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • In medulla
    • Hyper- Prolonged fight or flgith response and hypertension
    • Hypo- unimportant
  62. Exocrine Gland
    Secretes enzymes
  63. Endocrine Gland
    Secretes hormone
  64. Pancrease is what type of gland?
    Both exocrine and endocrine
  65. What type of cells in the pancrase produce enzymes?
    Acinar Islet (acinar cells)
  66. Which part of the pancrease secretes hormones?
    Islet of Langerhans
  67. What two hormones are produced by the pancrease (islet of langerhans)?
    Alpha and Beta
  68. Alpha cells produce what?
    Glucagon (29 proteins) 
  69. Beta cells produce what?
    Insulin (31 proteins)
Card Set:
Endocrine system

endocrine system
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