anatomy spot check

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eryn3115
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200874
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anatomy spot check
Updated:
2013-02-16 14:09:05
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anatomy spot check
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anatomy spot check
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  1. Projections for sinuses:
    Caldwell, Waters, LAT, SMV
  2. Caldwell positioning:
    -OML up 15* @ nasion
  3. Anatomy seen on Caldwell:
    • frontal and ethmoid sinuses
    • pyramids fill lower 1/3
  4. Waters positioning:
    -MML @ acanthion
  5. Anatomy seen on Waters:
    Maxillary sinuses above pyramids
  6. LAT positioning sinuses:
    IOML @ midway b/w outer canthus and EAM
  7. Anatomy seen on LAT sinuses:
    all 4 sinuses
  8. Projections for Skull:
    • PA
    • AP axial (towne)
    • LAT
  9. PA positioning:
    OML perpendicular to IR (nose and head on board) @ glabella
  10. What is seen on a PA skull?
    Petrous ridges fill orbits; clinoids above ethmoid sinuses
  11. AP axial (towne) positioning:
    OML 30 caudad @ 2 1/2" above glabella
  12. AP axial (towne) anatomy seen?
    Occipital bone, petrous pyramids, dorsum sellae w/n foramen magnum
  13. What is seen on LAT skull?
    entire skull, superimposed cranial halves, shows side closest to the IR
  14. LAT skull positioning:
    interpupillary line @ 2" above EAM
  15. Tilt is shown through:
    EAM, orbital roof
  16. Rotation is shown through:
    interpupilary line
  17. How to tell an image is sufficient on sinuses:
    • -Density is sufficient to visualize sinuses through cranium w/o over exposing maxillary and frontal sinuses
    • -sharp bony margins indicate no motion
  18. How to tell an image is suffient on a skull:
    • -Density and contrast are sufficient to visualize structures
    • -sharp bony margins indicate no motion
  19. KV range for skull:
    70-80 @ 5
  20. KV range for sinuses:
    70-80 @ 5
  21. AP elbow appearance:
    slight superimposition of radius and ulna
  22. OBL external elbow appearance:
    Should see radial head, neck and tuberosity free from superimposition
  23. OBL internal elbow appearance:
    should see radial head and neck superimposed and centered over proximal ulna
  24. How do you know if the elbow is acceptable w/ exposure criteria?
    • -should visualize soft tissue detail
    • -bony trabecular markings
    • -no motion
  25. UGI projections:
    AP, LPO, LAT
  26. AP positioning:
    @ L1 (midway b/w xiphoid tip and lower rib margin)
  27. Appearance of AP UGI:
    fundus of stomach filled w/ barium
  28. LPO positioning:
    • 30-60* obl @ L1
    • midway b/w spine and LAT border
  29. Appearance of LPO:
    Fundus filled w/ barium
  30. (R) LAT positioning:
    @ L1; 1-1 1/2" ant. to midcoronal plane
  31. How to know UGI is acceptable:
    • -visualization of gastric folds w/o overexposing other pertinent anatomy
    • -sharp structural margins indicate no motion
  32. Projections for C-spine:
    AP open mouth, AP axial C-spine, OBL C-spine, LAT
  33. Positioning for AP open mouth:
    CR @ upper incisors to the base of the mouth
  34. What should be seen on an AP open mouth?
    zygopophyseal joints, joint spaces, dens, lateral masses and spinous processes
  35. AP Axial c-spine positioning:
    15* angle @ C4
  36. What should be seen on an AP axial c-spine:
    should see body and spinous processes
  37. OBL C-spine positioning:
    15* angle @ C4 angle 45*
  38. What should be seen on an obl c-spine:
    intervertebral foramina, body, pedicles
  39. RAO/LAO appearances:
    intervertebral foramina and pedicles closest to IR
  40. RPO/LPO appearances:
    intervertebral foramina and pedicles furthest from IR
  41. LAT C-spine positioning:
    @ C4
  42. LAT C-spine appearances:
    zygopophyseal joints, intervertebral joints, articular pillars, post. arch
  43. Exposure criteria for C-spine:
    • -should demonstrate both bone and soft tissue density markings
    • -trabecular markings should appear sharp; indicating no motion
  44. T-spine projections:
    AP, LAT
  45. AP T-spine positioning:
    @ t7
  46. AP T-spine appearances:
    thoracic bodies, intervertebral joint spaces, transverse processes
  47. LAT t-spine positioning:
    @ T7
  48. LAT t-spine appearances:
    thoracic bodies, intervertebral joint spaces, intervertebral foramina shown
  49. L-spine AP positioning:
    @ L3
  50. appearances for AP L-spine:
    lumbar vertebral bodies, intervertebral joints, transverse processes.
  51. OBL L-spine positioning:
    @ L3
  52. OBL L-spine appearances:
    shows scotty dogs
  53. Parts of the scotty dog:
    • superior articular process- ear
    • transverse process- nose
    • pedicle- eye
    • pars interarticularis- neck
    • inferior articular process- leg
    • zygopophyseal joint- front leg
  54. LAT L-spine positioning:
    @ L3
  55. LAT L-spine appearances:
    intervertebral foramina, articular processes, intervertebral joint spaces
  56. Spot L-spine positioing:
    5-8* angle @ 1 1/2" inferior to iliac crest
  57. appearances of spot l-spine:
    open L4-L5 and L5-S1 joint spaces
  58. exposure criteria for L-spine:
    • -should demonstrate vertebral bodies and joint spaces
    • -sharp bony margins indicate no motion
  59. Positions for BE:
    • PA
    • AP
    • RAO
    • LAO
    • RPO
    • LPO
    • LAT rectum
    • Ventral decubitus 
    • (r) LAT decubitus
    • (l) LAT decubitus
    • AP axial butterfly
    • PA axial butterfly
  60. PA positioning for BE:
    @ iliac crest
  61. AP positioning for BE:
    @ iliac crest
  62. RAO positioning for BE:
    35-45* rotation @ crest w/ 1" towards left
  63. PA anatomy BE:
    barium just be filled on a transverse colon
  64. AP anatomy BE:
    air should be filled on a transverse colon
  65. RAO anatomy BE:
    (R) colic flexure and ascending colon are seen open 
  66. LAO anatomy BE:
    (l) colic flexure and descending colon are seen open
  67. LAO positioning for BE:
    1-2" above iliac crest
  68. Positioning for LPO obl:
    @ crest and 1" towards elevated side
  69. anatomy for LPO OBL:
    (r) colic flexure, ascending and rectosigmoid portions should appear open
  70. RPO positioning for BE:
    @ 1-2" above crest, 1" LAT to elevated side
  71. anatomy seen on RPO BE:
    left colic flexure and descending colon are open
  72. LAT rectum positioning:
    @ ASIS
  73. LAT rectum anatomy seen:
    rectosigmoid region is demonstrated
  74. Ventral decubitus postioning BE:
    @ ASIS
  75. Ventral decubitus anatomy seen:
    rectosigmoid region is demonstrated
  76. (R) LAT decubitus positioning:
    @ crest
  77. (R) LAT decubitus anatomy seen:
    air filled (L) colic flexure and descending colon
  78. (L) LAT decubitus positioning:
    @ crest
  79. (L) LAT decubitus  anatomy seen:
    air filled (R) colic flexure and ascending colon
  80. PA/AP postecavuation positioning:
    @ crest
  81. PA/AP postevacuation anatomy seen:
    entire large intestine w/ only residual amounts of contrast media
  82. AP axial butterfly positioning:
    30-40 cephalic @ ASIS
  83. AP axial butterfly anatomy seen:
    elongated view of rectosigmoid segments
  84. PA axial butterfly positioning:
    30-40 caudad @ ASIS
  85. PA axial butterfly anatomy seen:
    elongated view of rectosigmoid segments

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