HDFS Exam 1

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HDFS Exam 1
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  1. Definition od Devellopment
    the pattern of change begins at conception and continues through the life cycle
  2. Nature
    • gennetic
    • an organism's biological inheritance
    • genes, DNA
  3. Nurture
    an organism's environmental experiences
  4. Performationism
    • middle ages
    • children were seen and treated as mini adults
  5. Original Sin
    children were perceived as being born evil, childrearing focused on changing them to good
  6. Great Pioneers in Child Psychology
    • John Locke and Tabula Rasa
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Innate Goodness
  7. Tabula Rasa
    • Jogn Locke
    • John Locke believed children were born as " blank slates" and acquired their characteristics through experience
  8. Innate Goodness
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Rousseau believed children were born good and should develop with little interference
  9. Development is Multidirectional
    Some dimensions or components of a dimension increase in growth

    Some demensions or components of a dimension decrease in growth
  10. Development is Contextual
    • Normative age-graded influences
    • - biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

    • Normative history-graded influences
    • - influences that are common to people of particular generation because of the historical circumstances they experience

    • Non-normative life events
    • - Unusual occurrences, patterns, and sequence of events not applicable to many individuals
  11. Influential Theories to Explain Development
    • Psychoanalytic Theories
    • Learning Theories
  12. Freud's Psychosexual Theory of Development
  13. Freud's 3 Strutures of Personality
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  14. Id -
    libido,operates on unconscious level, present at birth, unconscious impulses, needs, and desires
  15. Ego -
    • Vehicle to satisfy id, develops at 2 - 3 yrs
    • Mediate b/w id & superego
  16. Superego -
    • Moral judge based on rules of society, develops at about 6 yrs
    • Understanding moral standard of right or wrong
  17. Five Stages of Psychosexual Development
    Freud's
    • 1. Oral Stage (mouth) - learn to trust others
    • 2. Anal Stage (anus/toilet training) - gain id
    • 3. Phallic Stage (sex-role indentification) - genitalia
    • 4. Latency Stage (achievement, mastery of skills) - self-esteem
    • 5. Genital Stage (Puberty) - libido satisfied by sexual activity
  18. Psychoanalytic Theories
    unconscious mind
  19. Learning/Behavioral Theories
    - Early idea for Tabula Rasa
    • Development results from the accumulation of experiences (Locke)
    • Theorize that developmental processes are best understood through observing ONLY and observable behaviors
  20. Learning Theories
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Social-Cognitive Learning
  21. Classical Conditioning
    Pavlov/Watson
    • Learning that results from the association of stimuli
    • Association, reflexive┬álearning
    • A process by which behaviors are learned through associations
    • Helps us understand the acquisition of emotional responses
  22. Operant Conditioning
    Skinner
    • Learning to increase or decrease behaviors based on their consequences
    • Helps with parenting and shaping new behaviors

    Process by which organisms learn to behave in ways that produce desirable outcomes
  23. John Watson
    • Expanded Pavlov's work to human beings
    • Used classical conditioning on an infant to demostrate that emotions could be learned
  24. Chromosomes
    • 22 matching pairs plus 1 sex chromosome
    • 23 pairs / 46 chromosomes
    • rod like structures that store and transit genetic information
  25. Zygote
    • results from human egg and sperm unite
    • first cell formed when the sperm and egg unite and join genetic material
    • contains a complete set of 46 chromosomes
  26. Sex Chromosomes
    • the 23rd pair of chromosomes
    • Males - XY
    • Females - XX
  27. Male carry ___ sex chromosomes
    XY
  28. Female carry ___ sex chromosomes
    XX
  29. Dominant-Recessive Inheritance
    Heterozygous Alleles
    the genotype contains two different genes and only one gene (the dominant gene) affects the characteristic

    the other gene is recessive
  30. X-linked Inheritance - Sex linked
    • Males are most likely to express
    • Recessive diseased or mutated genes carried on the X sex chromosome assert themselves more readily in males
  31. Polygenic Inheritance
    Characteristics are determined by the interaction of many different genes
  32. Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities
    • increase chromosome correlality then increase abnormality
    • Def: more or fewer than 46 chromrosomes
    • Strongly correlated with maternal age
    • chromosome abnormalities are severe tha ngenetic abnomalities
  33. Down Syndrome (most common)
    • Trisomy 21 (3 chromosomes at 21st pair)
    • Failure of the 21st chromosomal pair to separate during meiosis
    • Risks rises w/ maternal age
  34. Identical Twins (Monozygotic Twins)
    Develop from a single fertilized egg that splits into two genetically identical replicas, each of which becomes a person
  35. Fraternal Twins (Dizygotic Twins)
    Develop from separate eggs and separate sperm, making them genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings
  36. Germinal Period
    • formation of zygote and attaches to the uterine wall
    • first two weeks of conception
  37. Embryonic Period
    • most rapid changes (body structures and internal organs)
    • Highest vulnerability for birth defects
  38. Fetal Period
    • Growth and finishing phase
    • Most rapid increase in size
    • Towards end head is bigger and heavier than the rest of the body due to rapid brain development
    • -this causes the fetus to assume an upside down (birthing) position
  39. Age of Viability
    • Fetal Period
    • point at which the fetus can survive outside the womb
    • responses to external stimuli (sound, movement, pain)
  40. Teratogens
    broad range of substances and environmental influences that may result in defects of the fetus
  41. Low Birth Weight
    less than 5.5 pounds at birth
  42. Preterm Infants
    is one who is born 35 weeks or less after conception
  43. Small for date Infants
    • small for gestational age
    • includes infants whose birth weight is below nomal
    • inadequate nutrition and smoking by pregnant women are factors
  44. Cephalocaudal Pattern
    • Head to Tail
    • Head get bigger first (greatest growth occurs at the top)
  45. Proximodistal Pattern
    • Near to Far
    • The sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities
  46. Physical Change in Infancy
    Most rapid height and weight during infancy
  47. Puberty
    • Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occur in early adolescence
    • Bodily Changes (sexual maturation and increase in weight and height)
  48. Growth Spurt and Puberty
    • Female grows earlier than male
    • Female goes through puberty earlier than male
  49. Endocrine System
    Made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones (chemical messengers) that regulate growth and sexual maturation
  50. Senescence
    Gradual age related physical declines
  51. Sleep Patterns
    • (Most) Infants > Children > Adults > Elders
    • sleep patterns through ages (less sleep needed as age rises)
  52. Children need very deep sleep (Infancy)
  53. Neurons
    brain cells responsible for sending and transmitting information to and from other cells
  54. Glial Cells
    support cells, myelination cells
  55. Dendrites
    Receive information from other neurons
  56. Myelin Sheath
    Fatty substance that coats the axon and speeds information transmission
  57. Temporal Lobes
    Contain the auditory cortex, associations related to auditory stimuli
  58. Occipital Lobes
    Contain the visual cortex, associations related to visual stimuli
  59. 1Parietal Lobes
    Contain the somatosensory cortex, associations related to spatial orientation and touch

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