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- The study of life
Study of the structure, function, behaviors and evolution of cells
•Study of structure, function, and formation of macromoleculesthat are essential for life
• Emphasis on the role of genetic information (DNA)
Hierarchical Organization-Population Level
The part of the earth and atmosphere in which organisms live
A particular location where the organisms live such as forest,grassland, desert
All the organisms that live in a particular ecosystem
Consist of a set of populations that live in a particular area
Individual of the same species living in a specific location
Hierarchical Organization- Organismal Level
- Organs and organ systems
An individual living thing
Organs and organ systems
A body part consisting of two or more tissues
Ex. Brain, heart, circulatory system, nervous system
• A group of similar cells
• Ex. Epithelial tissue, cartilage tissue
Hierarchical Organization-Cellular Level
Smallest combination of molecular components that propagateautonomously in its environment
• A structural and functional part of the cell that is usuallymembrane bound
• Ex. Nucleus, mitochondria, lysosome
• A chemical structure containing 2 or more atoms
• Organic molecules- contain the element carbon (and hydrogen)–
Ex. Protein, carbohydrates, lipid, DNA
- • Inorganic- do not contain the element carbon–
- Ex. Oxygen, water, carbon dioxide
- Basic Unit of life
- All organisms are composed of one or
- more cells
- Cell Theory
- Smallest combination of molecular
- components that canpropagate
- autonomously in its environment.
- 1st seen in 1665 by Robert Hooke
- English Microscopist–
- Built a microscope–
- Viewed a slice of cork–
- named what he saw “Cells”–
Common characteristics of cells
- All cells have DNA as their genetic material
- In the form of one or more chromosomes
- A segment of DNA is a gene.
- All cells pass on their DNA to their offspring
- DNA duplicates before a the cell
- duplicates and thecopy is given to its
DNA directs the development and maintenance of theorganism
All are enclosed by a membrane that regulateswhat enters and exits the cell
Classifying life- Taxonomy
- 3 domains of life
- Bacteria (prokaryotes)
- Archaea (prokaryotes)
- Plants (photosynthetic)
- Fungi (decomposers)
- Animals (hetertrophs)
- Discovery science
- Describes structures and processes
- Hypothesis-based science
- Propose and test hypothetical explanations
Types of data-Qualitative, Quantitative
Data- recorded observations
Qualitative data- recorded descriptions and observations
Quantitative data- recorded measurements
Observation of Cholera. What was the investigation about?
Humans are susceptible to the disease,Cholera
Chickens do not get the disease, Cholera
Chickens have a higher body temperaturethan humans
What is the Scientific Question about Chlorea?
Why are chickens not susceptible to Cholera?
Why are chickens not susceptible toCholera?
A tentative answer to a scientific question.
- Uses Inductive Reasoning
- Derive generalizations based on a lot of specificobservations
- A hypothesis must be testable
- A hypothesis must be falsifiable
What was the hypothesis about Chlorea?
Chickens do not get Cholera because theirbody temperature is too warm.
Designing an experiment
Design an experiment to test the hypothesis
– It must be falsifiable
– Test must clearly show if the hypothesis issupported or not supported
– The experiment must include control group(s)
- • A group that shares all the same conditions exceptone
- • Compare the control group to the experimentalgroup and see if there is a different out come between the two
Experiment Analysis about the Chicken Chlorea
- • Set up an experimental group of chickens
- – Cool down the core body temperature of thisgroup of chickens by immersing their feet in icewater.
- • Set up a control group of chickens
- – They are unaltered and are not treated with coldwater
- • Inoculate the experimental and controlgroups with Cholera.
- • Record which groups contract Cholera.
All experiments must be under controlled conditions:
Forming experimental predictions
- • Uses deductive reasoning
- – A specific result is derived from a general premise
- • Uses “If-Then” logic
- • Experimental predictions predict what the results would be of an experiment if the hypothesis is correct.
Experimental prediction about chlorea
If the core temperature of chickens is lowered, then they can contract Cholera.
Data collection and analysis
- • Data:–
- Experimental group- contracted Cholera– Control group- remained healthy•
- Analysis of data: The chickens with lowered body temperatures contracted Cholera, whereas the control group did not
Forming a conclusion
- • If the data matches the experimental predictions
- – Hypothesis is supported by the data and can be potentially accepted
- – An accepted hypothesis has survived all attempts at falsification
- • A hypothesis is never proved
- • If the data does not match the predictions
- -Hypothesis is falsified by the data
- – Hypothesis is rejected
Conclusion about the chicken and chlorea
The hypothesis that lowering the body temperature of a chicken causes them to be susceptible to Cholera is validated by the data.
Summary of Scientific Method
- Form a scientific question
- form a hypothesese
- deisgn and experiment with controls
- make experimental predictions
- perform experiment and collect data
- analysis the data
- make conslusions
- • Have broad scope
- • Must be broad enough to allow for man yindividual testable hypothesis to form
- • Widely accepted among scientists
- • The highest “honor” a scientific principle can obtain.
Types of Theories
- Explain natural phenomenon on general principle
- ex. theory of gravity explains falling objects and planetary orbits
- ex. theory of evolution explains the diversity of organisms on the planet
- combines a body of interconnected concepts
- ex. quantum theory (physics)
- • Research that extends the boundaries of what is known to increase our overall knowledge.
- • It is not directed at a particular disease or condition.
- • Supported by government and private organizations.
- • A lot of basic research happens at the university level by
- -Principal investigators (professors that run the research lab)
- – Graduate students
- – Postdoctoral individuals (postdocs)
Must be peer-reviewed to have any merit with the Scientific Community.