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2013-02-17 00:22:08
Sociological Terms

Chapter 1, 2 and 4 terms and concepts
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  1. Macrosociology
    a level of sociological analysis concerned with large scale units such as institutions, social categories, and social systems. 
  2. Microsociology
    The level of sociological analysis concerned with small-scale units such as individuals in small group interactions. 
  3. Social Science
    A science that has as its subject matter human behavior, social organizations, or society 
  4. social work
    the field in which the principles of the social sciences are applied to actual social problems. 
  5. Sociological Imagination
    the ability to see how history and biography together influence our lives
  6. sociological perspective
    A way of looking at society and social behavior that involves questioning the obvious, seeking patterns, and looking beyond the individual in an attempt to discern social processes. Ex. Why are rich people rich? 
  7. Sociology
    the study of human society and social life and the social causes and consequences of human behavior. 
  8. Conflict theory
    A social theory that views conflict as inevitable and natural and as a significance cause of social change. 
  9. Dysfunction
    In structural functional theory, factors that lead top the disruption or breakdown of the social system. 
  10. Latent Functions
    the unintended consequences of a social system 
  11. Manifest Functions
    the intended consequences of a social system.
  12. Structural Functionalism
    the theory that societies contain certain interdependent structures, each of which is performs certain functions for the maintenance of society.
  13. Theory
    A set of logical and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon.
  14. Aguste Comte
    • Usually credited for being the father of sociology, bc he coined the term sociology 
    • . Also is author of the "law of human progress"- 1. The theological or fictitious, 2 the metaphysical or abstract 3 the scientific
  15. culture relativism
    The belied that cultures should be judged on their own terms rather than by the standards of another culture
  16. Culture universals
    Aspects of cultures that are shared by all people such as symbols, shelter, food and a belief system.
  17. Culture
    The system ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and techonolgy shared by almost everyone in a particular society
  18. Diffusion
    Transmission of a cultural item from one culture to another
  19. Discovery
    Recognizing, learning about, or better understanding of a phenomenon
  20. Ethnocentrism
    The view that ones own culture is superior to others and should be used as the standard against which other cultures are judged.
  21. Ideal culture
    The norms and values that people profess to follow
  22. Invention
    Making a new cultural item
  23. Language
    The systematized use if speech and hearing to communicate feelings and ideas
  24. Norms
    Formal and informal rules of conduct and social expectations for behaviors. Laws vs men dont wear skirts in the usa
  25. Real culture
    The norms and values that people actually collow and practice, which , may or may not be the same ideal culture and which represents the norms and values poeple profess to follow
  26. Society
    A groupmof interacting people who live in a soecific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperative manner and who share a common culture
  27. Subcultures
    Groups of persons who share in the main culture of society but also have their own distinctive values, norms, and lifestyles
  28. Symbol
    Something that is used to represent something else, such as a word, gesture, or object used to represent some aspect of the world
  29. values
    Ideas and beliefs shared by the poeple in a society about what is important and worthwhile.
  30. Cultural change
    • Thinking about our own culture over time and how it can change from s small tweak to a major shift in values. 
    • 1. Invention
    • 2. Dicovery
    • 3.diffussion
  31. larry naylor
    • Equality
    • freedom
    • individualism
    • diversity
    • rule of law
  32. Ethnocentrism
    • Examples, british drive on the wrong side of the road, 
    • "they will want to do it bc its the same way we do it" "the ugh factor
  33. Cultural relativism
    Does it matter which side of the road they drive on.

    false the french do not like to eat fast food, they like more formal dinners