Biology 180 Chapter 4

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rosylyn
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200902
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Biology 180 Chapter 4
Updated:
2013-02-16 03:07:05
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Chapter 4 Notes
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  1. Organic Chemistry Basics
    • Organic molecules- molecules that contain carbon and hydrogen

    • – If just Hydrogen and Carbon=hydrocarbon
    •      • Energy-rich bonds (fuel)
    •      • Non-polar (electrons evenly distribute)

    – May also be bound most commonly to oxygen,nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur
  2. Hydrocarbons
    • • Carbons can form 4 covalent bonds
    •       – Carbon-carbon bonds store a lot of energy
    • • Major component of
    •       – Fossil fuel
    •       – Body fat
    • • Shape can be linear, branched, single or double bonds, or rings
    • • Completely non-polar
    •       – Hydrophobic
  3. Variations in carbon skeletons
  4. Isomers of organic molecules
    • Same number of each atom but different arrangements of those atoms

    • Three kinds

    – 1. Structural- differ in covalent arrangement of atoms

    – 2. Cis-trans- same covalent relationship butdiffers in arrangement on a double bond

    – 3. Enantiomers- differ in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon

    • L (levo) vs. D (dextro)
  5. Structural isomers
  6. Geometric isomers
  7. Enantiomers




    Differ in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon,resulting in molecules that are mirror images,like left and right hands.
  8. Functional groups
    – Components of an an organic molecule that are reactive

    – Attachments that replace the hydrogen on the hydrocarbon skeleton

    – Examples you should be able to draw and/or recognize

    • Hydroxyl, Carbonyl (including ketones andaldehydes), Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfydryl, Phosphate
  9. Hydroxyl
    OH

    if alone, it will make the organic molecule an alcohol

    polar, make an organic compound hydrophilic (water soluble)
  10. Ketone

    • -contains a carboxyl group C=O
    • -found within a hydrocarbon skeleton
    • -polar, make a compound hydrophilic
  11. Aldehyde
    • -contains a carboxyl group
    • -found at the end of a hydrocarbon chain
    • -polar, hydrophilic
  12. Carboxyl

    • Non-ionic has an OH
    • Ionic does not have OH

    • -Acidic
    • -Ionize reversibly
    • -Ionic, hydrophilic
  13. Amino

    • -Basic
    • -Ionize reversibly
    • -ionic, hydrophilic
  14. Sulfhydryl

    • -makes thiols
    • -two sulfhydryls can form a covalent bond with each other=disulfide bone
    • -polar, hydrophilic (important in protein structure)
  15. Phosphate

    • -acidic
    • -ionize resersilby
    • -ionic, hydrophilic
    • (a component in DNa and ATP)

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