Newton
The English brought Newton into the picture who, from the beginning, was greatly talented as he created calculus, was developing a means of calculating rates of change and studying the composition of light. His famous work Principia contained the mathematical proofs that Newton used to demonstrate his universal law of gravitation. He was successful in creating a universal law that governed not only terrestrial objects but also planetary bodies, such as his theory that every object continues in state of rest or motion in a straight line unless deflected by force and the rate of motion. Newton’s view of the world as being able to be discovered and studied, for example, by showing the attraction of every object to another led to his idea of the Newtonian-world machine: the universe was one, huge regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space, and motion. In the end, he was able to combine the ideas of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler into one cosmology.