MD-76: diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium
renografin-60: diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium
name some common intravascular nonionic media:
contrast media whose molecules disassociate into two charged particles called the cation (+) and the anion (-) are considered to be __________, while media whose molecules remain whole in the solution are ___________.
the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane:
_________ osmotic substances, such as ROCMs, placed into the bloodstream will cause fluid from ____________________ to be drawn _____________________.
outside the bloodstream (extravascular)
into the bloodstream (intravascular)
the concentration of molecules per weight of water:
has greater osmolality than body fluids:
has lower olsmolality than body fluids:
has equal osmolality to body fluids:
the ___________ the osmolality of a contrast medium is to the osmolality of body fluids, the ___________ potential there is for adverse reactions caused by differences in osmolality
____________ compounds cause more direct endothelial damage:
ionic contrast has a ________ osmolality than nonionic contrast, and this ___________ the risks of adverse side effects.
high osmolality ionic contrast media have _______ iodine atoms per molecule.
the ratio of the iodine atoms to particles with higher osmolality is _______ or a ratio media of ________.
compounds that contain more iodine atoms per molecule have _____ osmolality.
low osmolality ionic contrast media have ________ iodine atoms per molecule.
the ratio of the iodine atoms to particles with less osmolality is ________ or a ratio media of __________.
low osmolality nonionic contrast media have _______ iodine atoms per molecule.
(and do not dissociate in solution)
with low osmolality nonionic contrast media, there is a ratio of iodine to osmoticaly active particle of _______ or a ratio media of _______.
when the ratio of particles to iodine atoms is low, there indicates a(n) __________ in osmolality.
(which increases the risk of adverse side effects)
three characteristics of contrast that may vary:
the higher the concentration of iodine, the _______ attenuation of the beam and the _______ degree of positive contrast.
iodine concentration usage depends on:
the degree by which the contrast will be diluted by body fluids
the osmolality of human blood:
the osmolality of aqueous contrast:
rapid fluid movement may cause:
resistance of fluid to flow:
amount of viscosity is determined by:
number of particles
size of particles
attraction of particles
amount of iodine
reactions are influenced by:
total dose or volume of contrast
rate or speed of injection
for the aorta, a _________ concentration is used and for the veins and smaller arteries, a __________ concentration is used.
as the concentration of iodine rises, name three other factors that also rise:
an IV would be a ___________ concentration, while a bolus would be a ___________ concentration.
if you increase the number of iodine atoms in the molecule and keep the same number of molecules, the concentration:
if you increase the number of iodine atoms in the molecule but decrease the number of molecules, the concentration:
stays the same
the higher the numerical value of the ratio, the ________ the osmolality for a given iodine
describe how nonionic contrast is different from ionic contrast:
they are less toxic and less neurotoxic
less likely to cause anaphylactic shock
less heat and discomfort during injection
used to be more expensive
both nonionic and ionic contrasts contain:
why are there less reactions when using nonionic contrast as compared to ionic contrast?
low iodine concentration
injected more slowly
(less reactions when injecting into an artery rather than a vein)
is a high iodine concentration more or less viscous?
how is viscosity determined?
frictions of molecules in the solution
name three things affected by viscosity:
what helps to reduce viscosity?
warming the contrast to body temperature
name two common aqueous iodine compounds:
what is the difference between sodium salts and meglumine salts?
sodium salts are more radiopaque
meglumine salts are somewhat less toxic and more soluble in water, and more viscous
name two common high osmolar contrast agents (HOCAs):
high osmolar contrast agents (HOCAs) contain:
sodium and meglumine salts
name one of the first agents used in myelography and what it was replaced with:
replaced with hexabrix (meglumine ioxaglate)
name some low osmolality contrast agents (LOCAs):
iopamidol (isovue, niopam)
is a severe allergic reaction, may end in cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest, and less often seizures:
Iodixanol (visipaque) is often the contrast of choice when patients have mild to moderate renal insufficiency:
for high risk patients
it is isoosmolar
_______ osmolality agents are routinely used and _________ are used for high risk patients.
total volume is dependent on:
type (ionic or nonionic)
weight and age of pt
speed of injection
minimum amount of iodine needs to be given in order to have a satisfactory contrast enhancemnt of vascular stuctures and various tissues:
factors affecting flow:
catheter/needle diameter and length
a study of the effects of drugs on the normal physiological function of the body; how a drug or contrast agent acts on the living system:
the study of the preparation properties, uses, and the actions of drugs:
the ________________ is sensitive to increased ions in the blood.
central nervous system
normal responses to ionic media:
sensation of warmth
allergic or anaphylactoid responses are caused by:
a release of histamine
(suggested that this is a CNS response)
the result of interactions between the contrast medium and the blood, causing the suppression of certain enzymes:
the study of how drugs enter the body, are absorbed, reach their site of action, are metabolized, and exit the body:
name a diabetic medication that can be contraindicated after the administration of contrast media:
can cause acute renal failure
withheld 48 hours after contrast administration
a chemical change that results in solid particles:
(can cause a thrombus/stationary clot or embolus/moving blood clot)
name four incompatible medications known to cause precipitation when mixed with contrast: