antifungals and antivirals.txt

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Author:
kavinashah
ID:
20095
Filename:
antifungals and antivirals.txt
Updated:
2010-05-20 19:13:20
Tags:
antifung antivur
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Description:
fungal viral
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  1. what type of organism is candida?
    • diploid fungus
    • normal commensal
  2. what infections can candida cause?
    oral and genital infection (thrush)
  3. what is the treatment for mild oral candidiasis?
    nystatin
  4. what is the 1st line treatment for moderate-severe candidiasis?
    fluconazole (PO)
  5. what is the 2nd line treatment for moderate-severe candidiasis?
    • itraconazole
    • or amphotericin
  6. what is the treatment for invasive oral candidiasis?
    • caspofungin
    • Anidalufungin
  7. what is tinea?
    dermatophyte infection (fungal infection of skin) - ringworm
  8. name the 4 types of tinea infections and where they occur
    • tinea capitis: scalp
    • tine corporis: trunk, arms, groin
    • tinea onychomycosis: nails (stubborn infection!)
    • athlete's foot
  9. what is the treatment for onychomysis tinea?
    terbinafine - needs oral treatment
  10. what are the treatments for tinea?
    • ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole: topical
    • terbinafine: oral or topical
    • griseofulvin: topical
  11. what are the risk factors for invasive fungal disease?
    • HIV
    • neutropenia
    • immuno-suppression: transplant or chemotherapy
    • surgery
    • IVDU
  12. which organism is aspergillosis caused by?
    aspergillus fumigatus
  13. what are the different manifestations of aspergillosis?
    • endocarditis
    • organ abscess
    • ABPA: allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
    • aspergilloma
    • invasive aspergillosis
  14. what is the 1st and 2nd line treatment of aspergillosis?
    • 1st: fluconazole, itraconazole
    • 2nd: amphotericin B
  15. how is amphotericin B excreted?
    some by kidney
  16. does amphotericin B cross BBB?
    not readily
  17. what is amphotericin B used for?
    • candidiasis
    • invasive aspergillosis
    • topical fungal infections
  18. why is amphotericin given as a liposomal?
    to increase the half life
  19. what are the side effects of amphotericin B?
    • hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis
    • fever, chills, headache, nausea
    • thrombophlebitis
    • haemolytic anaemia
    • hepatic damage
    • hypokalaemia
    • renal toxicity
  20. what is the MOA of azaleas?
    inhibit synthesis of ERGOSTEROL by blocking demethylation of lanosterol
  21. what are the side effects of azoles?
    • N&V, allergic rash
    • hepatitis
    • teratogenic
    • fluid retention
    • inhibits drug metabolism
  22. give 3 examples of nucleoSide RT inhibitors?
    • zidovudine
    • didanosine
    • lamivudine
  23. give an example of nucleoTide RT inhibitors
    tenefovir
  24. give 2 examples of non nucleoside RT inhibitors
    • nevirapine
    • efavirenz
  25. give 2 e.g. of protease inhibitors
    • indinavir
    • saquinavir
  26. what are the 2 main types of drugs used to treat HIV?
    • reverse transcriptase inhibitors: NRTI(nucleoside), NNRTI
    • protease inhibitors
  27. when should ARV be started? 2 options (WHO)
    • clinical: AIDS
    • CD4 cell count: 200/mm3 or lower
  28. what is the treatment of Hep C infection?
    • peg INF alpha (inc half life so less frequency needed only one weekly)
    • ribavarin (nucleoside analogue)
  29. what is the treatment of Hep B infection?
    • peg INF alpha (inc half life so less frequency needed only one weekly)
    • lamivudine (nucleoside analogue)
  30. what is the main side effect of peg INF?
    neutropenia
  31. what is the main side effect of ribavarin?
    • neutropenia
    • anaemia
  32. what are the side effects of NRTIs?
    • lactic acidosis: all
    • loss of subcut fat (lipodystrophy): all
    • anaemia: zidovudine
    • pancreatitis: ddI, ddC
    • neuropathy: ddI, ddC, d4T
    • hypersensitivity reaction: ABC
  33. what are the side effects of NNRTI?
    • hepatitis: all NNRTI
    • CNS: efavirenz
    • Stevens-johnson syndrome
  34. what are the SE of PI?
    • pancreatitis: lopinavir
    • liver toxicity: all PIs

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