Science Section 3 Pt. 2

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Science Section 3 Pt. 2
2013-02-19 23:29:56
Science Section

Science Section 3, Gemini and Onward
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  1. What were the major goals of project Gemini
    • To have man and materials in space for up to two weeks
    • To dock with other space vehicles
    • To perfect methods of landing on a predetermined spot (This was cancelled in 1964)
  2. What was Mercury's space flight ability? What did Gemini have to become the first to do? 
    Mercury could only change direction in space, Gemini had to become the first fully maneuverable 
  3. How many space flights did Gemini send up between April 1964- November 1966? How many were unmanned 
    12, the first 2 being unmanned
  4. What was the purpose of the first Gemini flight?
     Test the compatibility between the Gemini craft and the Titan II rocket
  5. What was the purpose of the second Gemini flight? 
    Test the launch and re entering systems
  6. Who piloted the first manned Gemini craft, Gemini 3? 
    Gus Grissom (First man to fly into space twice) and John W. Young
  7. What was the primary purpose of Gemini 3
    To test the maneuverablilty in space
  8. What was the difference between Gemini's landing and Mercury's? What happened during the landing phase? 
    • Gemini was designed to land on it's side by parachute attaches to both ends of the craft. 
    • When Grissom flipped the switch to land it thrusted him forward and cracked his face plate
  9. What was Gemini 4 the first of?
    • The first long duration US space flight 
    • The fist mission control from Mission Control in Houston instead of Cape Canaveral
  10. Who were the two astronauts in the Gemini 4 mission? What was their goal? What was the problem? What was the highlight?
    • James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White II
    • Mission was to fly in formation with the spent Titan II rocket
    • They found thrusting towards the rocket moved the farther away (Later learned to drop in orbit of the object, them move on it from under) 
    • Highlight was the 22 minute EVA, first American EVA
  11. Who were the astronauts of the Gemini 5 flight? What did the flight show us? 
    • Gordon Cooper and Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr.
    • 80 day flight showed astronauts could endure weightlessness over the time it would take to reach the moon
  12. Who were the astronauts of the Gemini 6 flight? What was the mission? What happened?
    • Willy Schirra and Thomas P. Stafford
    • The plan was to rendezvous with a craft in space but it exploded after launch.
    • It was changed to rendezvous with Gemini 7
  13. Who were the astronauts of the Gemini 7 mission? What did they accomplish
    • Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. 
    • They did the most experiments in space, 20, and tested the new suits which proved to be uncomfortable 
    • Most importantly they proved astronauts could stay in space for long periods of time
  14. Who were the astronauts of Gemini 8? What did the accomplish? 
    • Neil Armstrong and David R. Scott
    • They were docked with an Agena rocket (used by military to launch satellites) 
    • After docking it began to spin out of control
  15. What was the reason behimd the Gemini 8 craft spinning out of control? What was the solution 
    • It was a stuck orbital thruster
    • Armstrong turned off the thrusters and activated the reentry control rockets 
  16. Who were the pilots of Gemini 9? What happened to them though
    Elliot M. See Jr. and Charles A. Basset but 4 months before flight the were in a plane crash going to the place where the craft was being built
  17. Who were the back up pilots for Gemini 9
    Thomas Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan
  18. Make a list of the problems in relations to Gemini 9
    • They tried to launch an Agena rocket for docking but it exploded
    • They tried to launch an ATDA (Augmented Target Docking Adapter) but its computer failed so they had to postpone Gemini 9 launch
    • It could not dock with the ATDA
    • Cernan on a long EVA kept floating away and his suit couldn't handle the heat inside so his visor fogged up. He couldn't see and snagged a tear in his suit on an antenna 
  19. Who were the astronauts of Gemini 10? What went wrong in the flight? 
    • John Young and Micahel Collins 
    • NOTHING went wrong they docked with two rockets, one designed and one left over from Gemini 8. The one from Gemini 8 became the first docking done without guidance and by eye. Collins did a walk to the docked rocket which became the first person to meet another spacecraft in space
  20. Who were the astronauts of Gemini 11? What did they experiment in space
    • Pete Conrad and Richard F. Gordon
    • They did a gravity experiment by connecting to vessels with a tether and having them rotate (They found there was slight gravity) 
    • The re-entry was the first completely controlled by computer and was within 2.8 miles of accuracy 
  21. Who were the astronauts of Gemini 12? What did they prove
    • James Lovell and Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. 
    • Aldrin complete tasks outside the spacecraft proving a trained astronaut could work in space
  22. Who became the third nation to send a someone into space? When? What mission? Who?
    China in 2003 on the Shenzhou 5 spacecraft they sent Yang Liwei 
  23. What does Shenzhou stand for in Chinese
    Divine Vessel
  24. What was the first human made spacecraft to reach escape velocity?
    Luna 1
  25. What were the L-1 and L-3 Soviet space missions? What was their success dependent on?
    • L-1 was to be a 2 man craft that would circle the moon, L-3 was supposed to be the Lunar landing
    • It was dependent on the N-1 rocket
  26. What were the three sections of the Apollo spacecraft
    Command Module, Service Module and Lunar Module
  27. What was the Command Module? What was it used for?
    • Cone shaped capsule that was the crews living quarters and command center.
    • It held the food, water, clothing and waste management systems 
    • It was the only portion which was designed to withstand the re-entry heat
  28. What was the Service Module
    • Contained the oxygen supply, propulsion system along with other systems
    • For most of the mission the CM and SM were connected and referenced to as CSM
  29. What rocket was used to launch the Apollo spacecraft
    Saturn V
  30. Who designed the Saturn V rocket? What else did he design for the US
    Werhner von Bruan who also designed the Redstone rocket for the first two Mercury missions
  31. What are the three stages of the Saturn V rocket
    S-IC, SII, and SIVB
  32. What is the S-IC stage of the Saturn V rocket
    • 5 engines each the size of a two and a half ton truck
    • 6000 pounds of kerosene/liquid oxygen
  33. How much power does the SII stage of the Saturn V rocket have
    Power of 30 locomotives
  34. How did the S-IVB stage of the Saturn V rocket work?
    It would fire the first burst after the detachment with the SII stage, the after two or three orbits it would fire again, sending the rocket to the moon
  35. The first three Apollo rockets were unmanned missions, What were they called?
    • AS-201 1st flight
    • AS-203 2nd flight
    • AS-202 3rd flight
    • AS stands for Apollo-Saturn
  36. Who were the three astronauts for the first manned Apollo flight? What happened to them during simulation
    • Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Roger Chaffee, and Edward H. White Jr. 
    • During simulation with the CM Chaffee said he smelt fire, the Grissom yelled fire and the cabin reached 1000 F before service men could open the hatch. They all three died
    • The fire was blamed on a electrical spark under Grissom's seat
  37. What happened with the Soviet Soyuz 1 mission?
    Parachute failed on the re-entry process and it hit the ground instantly killing pilot Komarov
  38. Who were the pilots of the Apollo 7 mission
    • Walter Schirra Jr. (only astronaut to do Mercury, Gemini and Apollo launches), Don F. Eisele, and R. Walter Cunningham
    • They used a Saturn IB rocket since it carried no LM
  39. Who was to be the pilot for the Soviet Soyuz 3 mission
    Yuri Gagarin, but he died in a plane crash during training
  40. What were the pilots of Apollo 8 the first to do? What famous image did they take
    • They were the first to leave Earth orbit
    • They took a photo of the Earth rising over the surface of the moon, "Earthrise"
  41. What had the Soviets accomplished with Soyuz  4 & 5?
    They were two manned spacecrafts to dock in space
  42. Which Apollo flight had three pilots, all of which were on the Gemini flights?
    Apollo 10
  43. Who were the three pilots of the Apollo 11 flight?
    Neil Armstrong, Edwin E. "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins
  44. In the Apollo 11 flight, the CM was named what? What was the LM named?
    The CM was named Columbia and the LM was named Eagle (Hence, the Eagle has landed)
  45. What percent of the planet watched the event happen?
    About 1/3... the Soviets and China refused to broadcast it
  46. What was the longest telephone call in history?
    A call between the Apollo 11 crew and President Nixon
  47. What was left behind on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts?
    A flag, scientific instruments, and a plaque saying "Here men from planet Earth/ first set foot upon the Moon/ July 1969, A.D./ We came in peace for all mankind"
  48. Over the next three years after the Apollo 11 flight, how many more flights landed how many more astronauts on the Moon
    5 more missions landed 12 astronauts on the moon
  49. Why did Apollo 12 fire the LM back at the moons surface after takeoff
    It hit the surface, and with materials left behind, the seismic waves were used to find information about the Earth's interior
  50. Apollo 12 found what on the moons surface?
    Life on a piece of insulation left behind from Surveyor 3 (It was accepted that the organisms came from Earth)
  51. What dangered the Apollo 13 flight?
    56 hours in one of the oxygen tanks exploded, causing the other tank to fail. Also the normal amounts of Electricity, light and water was low so the only option was to swing around the moon and come back too Earth
  52. Who shot the first golf balls on the Moon? From which Apollo flight?
    Alan Shepard Jr. from the Apollo 14 flight
  53. What was the first Apollo mission to carry a LRV? What was a LRV?
    • Apollo 15 was the first to carry a LRv
    • LRV is a Lunar Roving Vehicle
  54. What scientific experiement was done on the Apollo 15 flight?
    They tested Galileo's hypothesis that things would fall at the same rate given different masses in absence of air drag
  55. What was significant about the Apollo 17 launch?
    It was the first night-time launch