Psych1: A Science

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Psych1: A Science
2013-02-16 22:22:10

Chapter 1 - Introduction to Psychology
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  1. psychological science
    the study of mind, brain, and behavior
  2. seven themes of psychological science
    • 1. psychology is an empirical science
    • 2. nature and nurture are intertwined
    • 3. the brain and mind are inseparable
    • 4. a new biological revolution is energizing research
    • 5. the mind is adaptive
    • 6. psychological science crosses levels of analysis
    • 7. we are often unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel, and act
  3. culture
    the beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next
  4. nature/nurture debate
    the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture
  5. mind/body problem
    a fundamental psychological issue that considers whether ind and body are separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the pshyical brain
  6. dualism
    (Rene Descartes) the idea that the body and mind are separate, yet intertwined

    REJECTED today: "the mind is what the brain does"
  7. evolutionary theory
    a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behavior and mental activity throughout a history of a species
  8. adaptations
    in evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations
  9. natural selection
    • (Charles Darwin) 
    • theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those that do not
  10. introspection
    • (Wilhelm Wundt)
    • a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts
  11. strucuralism
    beginning of experimental psychology

    • (Edward Titchener & Wilhelm Wundt)
    • an approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements

    subjects report on own sensations
  12. stream of consciousness
    • (William James)
    • a phrase coined to describe one's continuous series of ever-changing thoughts
  13. functionalism
    • (William James & John Dewey)
    • an approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior
    • examines the functions of the brain and not the structure
  14. Gestalt theory
    • (Max Wetheimer & Wolfgang Kohler)
    • (opposed to structuralism)
    • a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience (the Gestalt) is different from simply the sum of its parts
    • emphasizes the subjective experience of perception

    must be a whole, not broken into parts
  15. phenomenological approach
    totality of subjective conscious experience
  16. Mary Whiton Calkins
    • earned but was not given a PhD in psychology at Harvard
    • first woman to set up a psychological laboratory
    • 1905: first woman president of the American Psychological Association
    • published 100 articles 
  17. Margaret Flay Washburn
    • first woman to be granted a PhD in psychology (Cornell University)
    • became second woman president of the American Psychological Association
  18. unconscious
    • the mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness
    • (Freud)- the assumption that unconscious processes are not readily available to our awareness but influence our behavior had an enormous impact on psychology
  19. psychoanalysis
    • (Sigmund Freud)
    • method developed to attempt to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed
  20. behaviorism
    • (John B. Watson & B. F. Skinner)
    • dominated until 1960s
    • a psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior
    • most behavior can be modified by reward and punishent
  21. cognitive psychology
    • (George A. Miller, Edward Tolman & Wolfgang Kohler)
    • the study of how people think, learn and remember
    • the way people think about things influence their behavior
  22. cognitive neuroscience
    the study of the neural mechanisms that underlie thought, learning, and memory
  23. social psychology
    • (Kurt Lewin)
    • the study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes

    other people are powerful forces in shaping behavior
  24. field theory
    • (Kurt Lewin)
    • emphasized the interplay between people (biology, habits, beliefs) and their environments, such as social situations and group dynamics
  25. Kurt Lewin
    • social
    • founded modern social psychology, by pioneering the use of experimentation to test hypotheses and this to form theories
  26. critical thinking
    • (also linked to amiable skepticism: carefully weighing the evidence before deciding what to believe)
    • a systematic way of evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions
  27. effects of biological revolution on research
    scientific knowledge of brain activity has been enhanced by the discovery of more neurotransmitters. Mapping of the human genome have furthered genetics' role in analyzing both disease and behavior. Tremendous advances in brain imaging have revealed the working brain.
  28. levels of psychological analysis
    • 1. biological (brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics)
    • 2.  individual (personality, perception, cognition)
    • 3. social (interpersonal behavior)
    • 4. cultural (within a single culture and across several cultures)
  29. Wilhelm Wundt
    began the formal discipline of psychology in 1879
  30. John Dewey
  31. William James
  32. Wolfgang Kohler
  33. George Miller
  34. B. F. Skinner
  35. Edward Titchener
  36. Edward Tolman
  37. John B. Watson
  38. Max Wertheimer
  39. Wilhelm Wundt