Science: Viruses Part 2

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  1. Which virus is not lysogenic?
  2. What is the transforming factor?
  3. Heated S strain. Mixed S strain and R strain and mixed it with enzymes to destroy lipids and carbohydrates and proteins.
    A Transformation occurred.

    Took the heated S strain, and R Strain and mixed it with enzymes to destroy DNA.
    No transformation occurred.
    Avery, McCarthy, and MacLeod Experiments
  4. WHEN did a transformation occur in Avery, McCarthy and MacLeod's experiment?
    When they heated the S strain and mixed it with R strain and enzymes to destroy lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins.
  5. Conclusions to Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod's Experiments?
    • DNA is a transforming factor.
    • When DNA is destroyed the mouse lived.
  6. Experiment that worked with Bacteriophages
    Hershey and Chase/Blender Experiment
  7. Viruses that infect bacteria
  8. Testing to see what part of the virus infected the host cell
    Hershey and Chase/Blender Experiment
  9. Hershey and Chase/Blender Experiment:
    What 2 parts of the virus infected the host cell?
    • The protein coat (capsid)
    • DNA/RNA core
  10. What is the structure of DNA?
    A twisted ladder
  11. DNA:
    What is the Backbone made of?
    Deoxyribose and Phosphates
  12. DNA:
    What holds the chains together in the structure?
    Hydrogen bonds between the bases
  13. DNA:
    What are the middle rungs made of?
    Nitrogen bases
  14. What are the Nitrogen bases?
    • Thymine
    • Guanine
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
  15. What 2 Nitrogen bases are Single Ringed?
    • Thymine
    • Cytosine
  16. What 2 Nitrogen bases are Double Ringed?
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
  17. What 2 Nitrogen bases are the Purines?
    • Adenine
    • Guanine
  18. What 2 Nitrogen bases are the Pyramidines?
    • Thymine
    • Cytosine
  19. Nitrogen Bases:
    Pairs for:
    • Adenine-Thymine
    • Guanine-Cytosine
    • Thymine-Adenine
    • Cytosine-Guanine
  20. What fits together like pieces of a puzzle?
    Nitrogen bases
  21. What did Erwin Chargaff discover?
    • Adenine always pairs with Thymine
    • Cytosine always pairs with Guanine
    • Base pairs are called base pairs because they're in pairs
  22. What makes DNA?
  23. Where does DNA Replication occur?
    In the nucleus
  24. What are the 4 Steps to DNA replication?
    • 1. DNA helicase "unzip" the double stranded molecule
    • 2. DNA polymerase brings in the nucelotides to pair with original DNA strands
    • 3. DNA ligase checks for errors and "zips" the molecule back together
    • 4. 2 new identical DNA molecules exist
  25. Carries the code to make a certain protein from the nucleus to the ribosome
  26. What is RNA made of?
    Ribonucleic Acid
  27. What are the three types of RNA?
    • mRNA
    • rRNA
    • tRNA
  28. What is mRNA?
    • The messenger.
    • It takes info from the DNA to ribosomes
  29. What is rRNA?
    • Ribosomal.
    • Forms part of subunit of ribosomes
  30. What is tRNA?
    • It transfers.
    • Brings amino acids to ribosome
  31. WHERE does Transcription occur?
    Nucleus of cells
  32. WHEN does Transcription occur?
    When DNA makes mRNA
  33. What are the 3 steps of Transcription?
    • 1. RNA polymerase unzips DNA
    • 2. Hydrogen bonds DNA and RNA bases
    • 3. RNA polymerase links sugar and phosphate
  34. DNA vs. RNA
    (3 each)
    • DNA:
    • Double stranded
    • Deoxyribose
    • Adenine pairs with Thymine

    • RNA:
    • Single stranded
    • Ribose
    • Adenine pairs with uracil
  35. What does mRNA make?
  36. Where does Translation occur?
    At the ribosome in cytoplasm
  37. Three letters called a CODON are read at 1 time and translate into an amino acid
  38. Codon equation?
    Codon=3 bases=amino acid
  39. What is a chain of amino acids?
  40. What are the 4 steps of Translation?
    • 1. mRNA leaves nucleus to go to ribosomes in cytoplasm
    • 2. tRNA brings amino acids floating in cytoplasm to ribosomes
    • 3. tRNA has anticodon on opposite side that combines and compliments mRNA
    • 4. Forms a chain of amino acids
  41. What 3 things makes up a Nucleotide?
    • 1 Sugar
    • 1 Phosphate
    • 1 Nitrogen base

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Science: Viruses Part 2
2013-02-16 20:18:09
virus viruses science bio taylor soph biology

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