PSY 3010 FAMU TEST 2 (chp 3)
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PSY 3010 FAMU TEST 2 (chp 3)
FAMU Stevenson PSY3010
Flashcards for Stevenson 10:10 class on MWF test Chp 3
chemicals that are housed
in the axon terminals
between the axon and the dendrite
The small gap at this junction
The Central Nervous System
–comprised of the brain and spinal cord
–Often referred to as the command
Peripheral Nervous System
•The system of neurons in the
periphery, outside the brain and spinal cord, make up the peripheral nervous
system (e.g.. neurons going to the arms, legs, internal organs, and other body
•Further broken down into the
Somatic (SNS) and Autonomic nervous systems (ANS)
Somatic Nervous System
–The somatic system involves neurons in
the remaining periphery of the body.
•Autonomic Nervous System
–Autonomic system involves neurons going
to parts of the body that are considered to be automatic in their function. For
example, we don’t have to remind our intestines to work, our hearts to beat, or
our lungs to take air in and out.
•The ANS is further broken down into the sympathetic
sympathetic system activates when our autonomic system needs to be excited.
•The extra blood flow and oxygen to the
muscles prepare the body to protect itself and allow us to either escape from
the danger or fight to overcome the danger (flight-or-fight reaction).
keeps the body calm and allows the heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
to function at a resting state.
•The oldest part of the brain and is
responsible for automatic survival processes such as arousal and consciousness.
•brainstem also plays an important role in
•All information from the body passes
through the brainstem on its way to the brain
Structures of the Brainstem
•controls such vital automatic functions
as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.
•Survival functions controlled are sleep, arousal, and cardiac reflexes.
-a bundle of nerves that is responsible for arousal and regulating the sleep–wake
-regulates the body’s movement and balance. It is also involved in learning processes
•acts as a sensory relay station that
processes and relays sensory information between the cortex and the brainstem.
•group of body structures responsible for
emotions, memory, and motivated behaviors.
–hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
•responsible for the formation of new
memories, as well as spatial memory and navigation.
-almond-shaped mass of nuclei that controls emotional responses such as rage and fear.
•located below the thalamus, regulates
body temperature, circadian rhythm, hunger, and thirst.
hypothalamus also plays a role in regulating the release of hormones in the
-Also the brain structure that influences the endocrine system through its control of the pituitary
gland. The pituitary gland regulates growth and is often referred to as “the master gland” because it secretes hormones that
regulate other glands.
•The cerebral cortex contains several
important divisions, including the sensory/motor cortices and the association
Cerebral Cortex Divisions
for processing information in the brain related to the five senses.
-Association areas of
the cerebral cortex are responsible for higher mental processes including
thinking, language, learning, and information processing.
-A popular task involving association areas is completing the crossword puzzles
found in the daily newspaper
-receives information from neurons
throughout various areas of the body and in turn produces the body’s voluntary
• These functions are are planning, movement, and speech.
•The parietal cortex is located in the area at the top of the brain toward the middle.
•Chief among the functions associated with this cortical region is the processing of tactile sensory information.
•The occipital lobes are located at the
back of the skull and just below the parietal lobes.
•Within this region, the brain receives
and processes basic visual information.
•The occipital lobes receive, organize,
and integrate basic characteristics of objects in our visual fields that are
helpful in our understanding of them, such as color, shape, size, and so on.
•Temporal lobes play an integral role in
the production and processing of language.
to the left temporal lobe often results in Wernicke’s aphasia (unable
to understand or comprehend speech)
–Regulates the release of hormones from
-Once released into the bloodstream, hormones impact changes in various
body organs, including the brain, as well as in various bodily function
epinephrine and norepinephrine in
response to autonomic nervous system actions to help the body respond to stress
above the kidneys
gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism
-small glands located in the neck, release
hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood and in bones.
-located below the stomach near the small
-regulates blood glucose levels
•phrenologists felt the bumps on an
individual’s head and used that information to determine the individual’s
traits and characteristics
•parts of animal brains are cut in order
to determine which functions are affected
•Cutting the corpus callosum was
first used to treat epileptic seizures in those individuals who had severe
•The nervous system is
involved in all psychological processes, whether affective, behavioral, or cognitive.
of billions of nerve cells called neurons, the brain cells responsible for
transmitting signals (neural impulses) throughout the body.
•Neurons receive signals from sensory receptors in the
body, process them, and transmit them as neural impulses throughout the nervous
system and back to the body.
addition to processing memories, thoughts, and emotions, neurons are
responsible for regulating life sustaining functions
: heartbeat, breathing, and
Major Parts of a Neuron
Cell Body, Axon, Dendrites
•contains the nucleus of the neuron
busy structures that are connected to the cell body
•receives messages from the cell body,
then transmits the signal to axon terminals
–a fatty substance called myelin. Neural
impulses of myelinated axons are 10x faster than the impulses of unmyelinated
–When neurons are not transmitting
information they are “at rest” and polarized. If the neuron is not stimulated,
the electrical charge will remain constant at about -70 millivolts (mV).
–When the electrical charge of a neuron
reverses to become more positive on the inside than the outside (+50 mV), an action