PSY 3010 FAMU TEST 2 (chp 3)

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PSY 3010 FAMU TEST 2 (chp 3)
2013-02-16 16:21:07
FAMU Stevenson PSY3010

Flashcards for Stevenson 10:10 class on MWF test Chp 3
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  1. Neurotransmitters
    • Brain
    • chemicals that are housed
    • in the axon terminals
  2. Junction
    between the axon and the dendrite 
  3. Synaptic cleft
    The small gap at this junction
  4. The Central Nervous System 
    –comprised of the brain and spinal cord

    • –Often referred to as the command
    • center
  5. Peripheral Nervous System 
    • •The system of neurons in the
    • periphery, outside the brain and spinal cord, make up the peripheral nervous
    • system (e.g.. neurons going to the arms, legs, internal organs, and other body
    • parts)

    • •Further broken down into the
    • Somatic (SNS) and Autonomic nervous systems (ANS)
  6. Somatic Nervous  System
    • –The somatic system involves neurons in
    • the remaining periphery of the body.   
  7. •Autonomic Nervous System
    • –Autonomic system involves neurons going
    • to parts of the body that are considered to be automatic in their function. For
    • example, we don’t have to remind our intestines to work, our hearts to beat, or
    • our lungs to take air in and out.

    • •The ANS is further broken down into the sympathetic
    • division and
    • the parasympathetic
    • division.
  8. Sympathetic Divisions
    • The
    • sympathetic system activates when our autonomic system needs to be excited. 
    • •The extra blood flow and oxygen to the
    • muscles prepare the body to protect itself and allow us to either escape from
    • the danger or fight to overcome the danger (flight-or-fight reaction). 
  9. Parasympathetic Division 
    • •what
    • keeps the body calm and allows the heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration
    • to function at a resting state.
  10. Brainstem
    • •The oldest part of the brain and is
    • responsible for automatic survival processes such as arousal and consciousness. 
    • •brainstem also plays an important role in
    • attention.
    • •All information from the body passes
    • through the brainstem on its way to the brain
  11. Structures of the Brainstem


    –Reticular formation
  12. Medulla
    • •controls such vital automatic functions
    • as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure. 
  13. Pons
    •Survival functions controlled are sleep, arousal, and cardiac reflexes.
  14. Reticular Formation 
    • -a bundle of nerves that is responsible for arousal and regulating the sleep–wake
    • cycle
  15. Cerebellum
    -regulates the body’s movement and balance. It is also involved in learning processes
  16. Thalamus
    • •acts as a sensory relay station that
    • processes and relays sensory information between the cortex and the brainstem. 
  17. Limbic system 
    • •group of body structures responsible for
    • emotions, memory, and motivated behaviors.
    •  –hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. 
  18. Hippocampus
    • •responsible for the formation of new
    • memories, as well as spatial memory and navigation. 
  19. Amygdala
    -almond-shaped mass of nuclei that controls emotional responses such as rage and fear.
  20. Hypothalamus
    • •located below the thalamus, regulates
    • body temperature, circadian rhythm, hunger, and thirst.  

    • -The
    • hypothalamus also plays a role in regulating the release of hormones in the
    • pituitary gland

    • -Also the brain structure that influences the endocrine system through its control of the pituitary
    • gland.  The pituitary gland regulates growth and is often referred to as “the master gland” because it secretes hormones that
    • regulate other glands.
  21. Cerebral Cortex
    • •The cerebral cortex contains several
    • important divisions, including the sensory/motor cortices and the association
    • cortex. 
  22. Cerebral Cortex Divisions
    •Sensory cortex

    •Motor cortex


    •Frontal lobe

    •Parietal lobe

    •Occipital lobe

    •Temporal lobe
  23. Sensory Cortex
    • -responsible
    • for processing information in the brain related to the five senses. 
  24. Association Areas
    • -Association areas of
    • the cerebral cortex are responsible for higher mental processes including
    • thinking, language, learning, and information processing.

    • -A popular task involving association areas is completing the crossword puzzles
    • found in the daily newspaper
  25. Motor Cortex
    • -receives information from neurons
    • throughout various areas of the body and in turn produces the body’s voluntary
    • movements
  26. Frontal Lobes
    • These functions are are planning, movement, and speech. 
  27. Parietal lobes
    • •The parietal cortex is located in the area at the top of the brain toward the middle. 
    • •Chief among the functions associated with this cortical region is the processing of tactile sensory information.
  28. Occipital Lobe
    • •The occipital lobes are located at the
    • back of the skull and just below the parietal lobes.

    • •Within this region, the brain receives
    • and processes basic visual information.

    • •The occipital lobes receive, organize,
    • and integrate basic characteristics of objects in our visual fields that are
    • helpful in our understanding of them, such as color, shape, size, and so on.
  29. Temporal lobe
    • •Temporal lobes play an integral role in
    • the production and processing of language.
    • -Damage
    • to the left temporal lobe often results in Wernicke’s aphasia (unable
    • to understand or comprehend speech)
  30. Endocrine System
    • –Regulates the release of hormones from
    • glands.
    • -Once released into the bloodstream, hormones impact changes in various
    • body organs, including the brain, as well as in various bodily function
  31. Adrenal glands
    • -release
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine in
    • response to autonomic nervous system actions to help the body respond to stress
    • or emergencies
    • -located
    • above the kidneys
  32. Thyroid Gland
    • -large
    • gland in the neck that secretes hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism
  33. Parathyroids
    • -small glands located in the neck, release
    • hormones that regulate calcium levels in the blood and in bones.
  34. Pancreas
    • -located below the stomach near the small
    • intestines
    • -regulates blood glucose levels
  35. Phrenology
    • •phrenologists felt the bumps on an
    • individual’s head and used that information to determine the individual’s
    • traits and characteristics
  36. Lesion
    • •parts of animal brains are cut in order
    • to determine which functions are affected
  37. Split-brain
    • •Cutting the corpus callosum was
    • first used to treat epileptic seizures in those individuals who had severe
    • epilepsy
  38. Nervous System
    • •The nervous system is
    • involved in all psychological processes, whether  affective, behavioral, or cognitive.

    •    -Comprised
    • of billions of nerve cells called neurons, the brain cells responsible for
    • transmitting signals (neural impulses) throughout the body.
  39. Neurons
    • •Neurons  receive signals from sensory receptors in the
    • body, process them, and transmit them as neural impulses throughout the nervous
    • system and back to the body.

    • In
    • addition to processing memories, thoughts, and emotions, neurons are
    • responsible for regulating life sustaining functions: heartbeat, breathing, and
    • body temperature.
  40. Major Parts of a Neuron
    Cell Body, Axon, Dendrites
  41. Cell Body
    •contains the nucleus of the neuron
  42. Dendrites
    • -short,
    • busy structures that are connected to the cell body
  43. Axon
    • •receives messages from the cell body,
    • then transmits the signal to axon terminals
    • –a fatty substance called myelin. Neural
    • impulses of myelinated axons are 10x faster than the impulses of unmyelinated
    • axons.
  44. Resting
    • –When neurons are not transmitting
    • information they are “at rest” and polarized. If the neuron is not stimulated,
    • the electrical charge will remain constant at about -70 millivolts (mV).
  45. Action Potential
    • –When the electrical charge of a neuron
    • reverses to become more positive on the inside than the outside (+50 mV), an action
    • potential
    • occurs.