Blood Vessels (Unit 2 Part 3)

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Blood Vessels (Unit 2 Part 3)
2013-02-16 17:04:52
blood pressure

long term mechanisms and chemical influences on the blood pressure and vessels
Show Answers:

  1. what does norepinephrine and epinephrine promote in the body?
    they promote an increase in cardiac output as well as generalized vasoconstriction
  2. what chemical in the body acts as a vasodilator and an antagonist to aldosterone and causes a drop in blood volume?
    atrial natriuretic peptide
  3. name a hormone that can increase blood volume by vasoconstriction and water conservation in the kidneys?
    ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
  4. what does angiotensin II do to influence blood pressure?
    • 1. it acts a vasoconstrictor
    • 2. it promotes the release of aldosterone and ADH
  5. what is released as a response to low blood flow?
    Endothelium derived factors
  6. what are 2 long term mechanisms of blood pressure ?
    • 1. direct renal mechanism
    • 2. indirect renal mechanism
  7. what is a factor of direct renal mechanism?
    it alters blood volume which will increase the kidney filtration rate
  8. what is a factor of indirect renal mechanism
    it counteracts a decline in arterial blood pressure by causing systemic dilation
  9. how do you measure circulatory efficiency?
    by pulse and blood pressure
  10. how is a pulse generated?
    by altering the stretch and recoil of elastic arteries during each cardiac cycle
  11. how is systemic blood pressure measured?
    by using ascultatory method which relies on the use of a blood pressure cuff to alternately stop and reopen blood flow in to the brachial artery of the arm
  12. what is vasomotion?
    the slow, intermittent flow of blood through the capillaries
  13. what event happens between the blood and interstitial space?
    capillary exchange
  14. what is hydrostatic pressure?
    the force of fluid against a membrane
  15. what is colloid osmotic pressure?
    the force opposing hydrostatic pressure and is created by the presence of large, nondiffusible molecules that are prevented from moving through the capillary membrane
  16. when will fluids leave the capillaries?
    if the net HP exceeds the net OP
  17. what is resistance?
    the measure of friction between blood and the vessel wall
  18. what 3 sources does resistance arise from?
    • 1. blood viscosity
    • 2. blood vessel length
    • 3. blood vessel diameter
  19. what occurs when blood pressure is increased?
    blood flow increases
  20. what occurs if peripheral resistance increases?
    blood flow decreases
  21. what is the most important factor influencing local blood flow?
    peripheral resistance
  22. what two factors can alter blood flow?
    • 1. vasoconstriction
    • 2. vasodilation