Blood Vessels (Unit 2 Part 3)
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what does norepinephrine and epinephrine promote in the body?
they promote an increase in cardiac output as well as generalized vasoconstriction
what chemical in the body acts as a vasodilator and an antagonist to aldosterone and causes a drop in blood volume?
atrial natriuretic peptide
name a hormone that can increase blood volume by vasoconstriction and water conservation in the kidneys?
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
what does angiotensin II do to influence blood pressure?
- 1. it acts a vasoconstrictor
- 2. it promotes the release of aldosterone and ADH
what is released as a response to low blood flow?
Endothelium derived factors
what are 2 long term mechanisms of blood pressure ?
- 1. direct renal mechanism
- 2. indirect renal mechanism
what is a factor of direct renal mechanism?
it alters blood volume which will increase the kidney filtration rate
what is a factor of indirect renal mechanism
it counteracts a decline in arterial blood pressure by causing systemic dilation
how do you measure circulatory efficiency?
by pulse and blood pressure
how is a pulse generated?
by altering the stretch and recoil of elastic arteries during each cardiac cycle
how is systemic blood pressure measured?
by using ascultatory method which relies on the use of a blood pressure cuff to alternately stop and reopen blood flow in to the brachial artery of the arm
what is vasomotion?
the slow, intermittent flow of blood through the capillaries
what event happens between the blood and interstitial space?
what is hydrostatic pressure?
the force of fluid against a membrane
what is colloid osmotic pressure?
the force opposing hydrostatic pressure and is created by the presence of large, nondiffusible molecules that are prevented from moving through the capillary membrane
when will fluids leave the capillaries?
if the net HP exceeds the net OP
what is resistance?
the measure of friction between blood and the vessel wall
what 3 sources does resistance arise from?
- 1. blood viscosity
- 2. blood vessel length
- 3. blood vessel diameter
what occurs when blood pressure is increased?
blood flow increases
what occurs if peripheral resistance increases?
blood flow decreases
what is the most important factor influencing local blood flow?
what two factors can alter blood flow?
- 1. vasoconstriction
- 2. vasodilation
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