A&P Chapter 4: Tissues

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evander4
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201024
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A&P Chapter 4: Tissues
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2013-02-16 19:13:22
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Tissues
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Details about the tissues of the body
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  1. What are the 4 types of tissues in the body?
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nerve
  2. Where do you find epithelial cells?
    On surfaces of the body that come into contact with the outside environment.

    ex. digestive tract, respiratory system, reproductive system, urinary system.
  3. What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
    • 1. Controls permeability (absorption and secretion)
    • 2. Provides sensation
    • 3. Physical protection
    • 4. Produces specialized secretions
  4. What are the characteristics of the epithelia?
    • 1. Cellularity - interacts with neighboring cells through cell junctions
    • 2. Polarity - has an apical side that is unattached and a basement side attached to basal lamina
    • 3. Avascularity - meant to protect, cells are not that active
    • 4. Attachment - to basal lamina
    • 5. Regeneration - quickly reproduce and repair
  5. How are tissue cells linked together?
    CAMS - cell adhesion molecules:

    • 1.Tight junctions
    • 2. Gap junctions
    • 3. Desmosomes
  6. Tight junction
    • -Does not allow passage of water or solutes
    • -Found between 2 plasma membranes
    • -Adhesion belt attaches to terminal web
    • -Isolates waste in the lumen
  7. Gap junction
    • -Allows rapid communication between cells
    • -Cells are held together by channel proteins
    • -Allows ions to pass through the channels
    • -Coordinates contraction in heart muscle
  8. Desmosomes
    • -flexible and durable way to hook 2 cells together
    • -Spot: found on lateral surface of the cell
    • -Hemi: found on basal lamina side of the cell
  9. What are the 3 epithelial tissue shapes?
    • 1. Squamous - thin and scale like
    • 2. Cuboidal - like a box
    • 3. Columnar - tall and thin; has cilia or microvili
  10. How can epithelial cells be arranged?
    • 1. Simple: one layer - each cell has an apical side and a basement side attached to the basal lamina
    • 2. Stratified: multiple layers - stratified tissue is defined by the apical layer.
  11. What are the 2 types of glands?
    • 1. Endocrine: release hormones into interstitial fluid (no ducts)
    • 2. Exocrine: produces secretions onto epithelial surface through ducts
  12. What is connective tissue?
    • -Tissue that connects!
    • -Made up of fibers and fluid
    • -Mostly "other stuff", very few cells
  13. What types of cells are found in connective tissue?
    • 1. Fibroblasts: makes connective tissue proper
    • 2. Adipocytes: fat cells
    • 3. Melanocytes: produce melanin
    • 4. lymphocytes: immune cells in the lymphatic system
    • 5. Mast cells: stimulate inflammation after injury or infection
    • 6. Macrophages: large amoeba-like cells of the immune system
  14. What are the 3 types of connective tissue fibers?
    • 1. Collagen fibers
    • 2. Reticular fibers
    • 3. Elastic fibers
  15. Collagen fibers
    • - Like a rope, they do not stretch
    • - most common fiber in connective tissue proper
    • - long, straight, unbranched
    • -strong and flexible
    • -resistant to force in only one direction

    ex: ligaments and tendons
  16. Reticular fibers
    • - Like a dock
    • - Network of interwoven fibers
    • - Strong and flexible
    • - Resistant to force in many directions
    • - Stabilizes functional cells and structures

    ex: Sheaths surrounding organs
  17. Elastic fibers
    • - Like a rubberband
    • - Contain elastin
    • - Branched and wavy
    • - Return to original length after stretching

    ex: elastic ligaments and vertebrae
  18. What are the 3 types of connective tissue?
    • 1. Connective tissue proper: dense and loose connective tissue proper
    • 2. Fluid connective tissues: blood and lymph
    • 3. Supporting connective tissue: cartilage and bone
  19. Dense connective tissue proper
    • 1. Dense regular: tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers; Tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses
    • 2. Dense irregular: interwoven network of collagen fibers; Layered skin, around cartilages, around bones, capsules around some organs
    • 3. Elastic tissue: Made of elastic fibers; Elastic ligaments and spinal vertebrae
  20. Fluid connective tissue
    • - Watery matrix of dissolved proteins
    • - Carries specific cell types; red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

    ex: blood and lymph
  21. Loose connective tissue proper
    • 1. Areolar: (haireolar) open framework, elastic fibers, holds blood vessels, capillary beds and nerves
    • 2. Adipose tissue: White fat stores triglycerides, absorbs shock, insulation; Brown fat more vascularized, has many mitochondria; Adipocytes do not divid, they shrink and expand
    • 3. Reticular tissue: provides support with supportive fibers (reticular fibers); reticular organs are organs built around a framework
  22. Supporting connective tissue
    • 1. Cartilage: gel type ground substance for shock absorption and protection
    • 2. Bone: Calcified, for weight support
  23. What are the 3 types of cartilage?
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage
    • 2. Elastic cartilage
    • 3. Fibrocartilage
  24. Hyaline cartilage
    • -Stiff, flexible support
    • -Reduces friction between bones
    • -Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum and trachea
  25. Elastic cartilage
    • -Supportive but bends easily
    • -Returns to original shape
    • -Found in external ear and epiglottis
  26. Fibrocartilage
    • -Limits movement
    • -Prevents bone-bone contact
    • -Prevents compression
    • -Pads knee joints
    • -Found between pubic bones and intervertebral
  27. Osseous Tissue
    • Made up of:
    • 1.Matrix: Strong, resists shattering
    • 2. Osteocytes: highly vascularized (canaliculi) arranged around central canals within matrix
    • 3. Periosteum: Covers bone surfaces; fibrous layer; cellular layer
  28. What are the 4 types of membranes?
    • 1. Mucous membranes
    • 2. Serous membranes
    • 3. Cutaneous membranes
    • 4. Synovial membranes
  29. Mucous membranes
    • -Line passageways with external connections (epithelial cells)
    • -Epithelial surfaces must be moist to reduce friction and facilitate absorption and excretion
  30. Serous membrane
    • -Lines cavities not open to the outside
    • -They are thin, but strong
    • -Have fluid transudate to reduce friction
    • -parietal and visceral portions
  31. Cutaneous membrane
    • -SKIN! surface of the body
    • -Water resistant, thick and dry
  32. Synovial membrane
    • -Surrounds synovial joints
    • -Produces synovial fluid as a lubricant
    • -Protects the end of the bone
    • -Lacks a true epithelium
  33. Muscle Tissue
    • 1. Skeletal: long and thin, muscle fibers, do not divide, multiple nuclei, striated, voluntary
    • 2. Cardiac: cardiocytes, form branching networks connected at intercalated discs (gap junctions), striated, involuntary
    • 3. Smooth: small and tapered, can divide and regenerate, not striated, involuntary
  34. Neural tissue
    • 1.Neurons: nerve cell, performs electrical communication
    • 2. Neuroglia: house keepers, supporting cells, repair and supply nutrients to neurons

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