A&P Chapter 4: Tissues
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What are the 4 types of tissues in the body?
- 1. Epithelial
- 2. Connective
- 3. Muscle
- 4. Nerve
Where do you find epithelial cells?
On surfaces of the body that come into contact with the outside environment.
ex. digestive tract, respiratory system, reproductive system, urinary system.
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
- 1. Controls permeability (absorption and secretion)
- 2. Provides sensation
- 3. Physical protection
- 4. Produces specialized secretions
What are the characteristics of the epithelia?
- 1. Cellularity - interacts with neighboring cells through cell junctions
- 2. Polarity - has an apical side that is unattached and a basement side attached to basal lamina
- 3. Avascularity - meant to protect, cells are not that active
- 4. Attachment - to basal lamina
- 5. Regeneration - quickly reproduce and repair
How are tissue cells linked together?
CAMS - cell adhesion molecules:
- 1.Tight junctions
- 2. Gap junctions
- 3. Desmosomes
- -Does not allow passage of water or solutes
- -Found between 2 plasma membranes
- -Adhesion belt attaches to terminal web
- -Isolates waste in the lumen
- -Allows rapid communication between cells
- -Cells are held together by channel proteins
- -Allows ions to pass through the channels
- -Coordinates contraction in heart muscle
- -flexible and durable way to hook 2 cells together
- -Spot: found on lateral surface of the cell
- -Hemi: found on basal lamina side of the cell
What are the 3 epithelial tissue shapes?
- 1. Squamous - thin and scale like
- 2. Cuboidal - like a box
- 3. Columnar - tall and thin; has cilia or microvili
How can epithelial cells be arranged?
- 1. Simple: one layer - each cell has an apical side and a basement side attached to the basal lamina
- 2. Stratified: multiple layers - stratified tissue is defined by the apical layer.
What are the 2 types of glands?
- 1. Endocrine: release hormones into interstitial fluid (no ducts)
- 2. Exocrine: produces secretions onto epithelial surface through ducts
What is connective tissue?
- -Tissue that connects!
- -Made up of fibers and fluid
- -Mostly "other stuff", very few cells
What types of cells are found in connective tissue?
- 1. Fibroblasts: makes connective tissue proper
- 2. Adipocytes: fat cells
- 3. Melanocytes: produce melanin
- 4. lymphocytes: immune cells in the lymphatic system
- 5. Mast cells: stimulate inflammation after injury or infection
- 6. Macrophages: large amoeba-like cells of the immune system
What are the 3 types of connective tissue fibers?
- 1. Collagen fibers
- 2. Reticular fibers
- 3. Elastic fibers
- - Like a rope, they do not stretch
- - most common fiber in connective tissue proper
- - long, straight, unbranched
- -strong and flexible
- -resistant to force in only one direction
ex: ligaments and tendons
- - Like a dock
- - Network of interwoven fibers
- - Strong and flexible
- - Resistant to force in many directions
- - Stabilizes functional cells and structures
ex: Sheaths surrounding organs
- - Like a rubberband
- - Contain elastin
- - Branched and wavy
- - Return to original length after stretching
ex: elastic ligaments and vertebrae
What are the 3 types of connective tissue?
- 1. Connective tissue proper: dense and loose connective tissue proper
- 2. Fluid connective tissues: blood and lymph
- 3. Supporting connective tissue: cartilage and bone
Dense connective tissue proper
- 1. Dense regular: tightly packed, parallel collagen fibers; Tendons, ligaments, and aponeuroses
- 2. Dense irregular: interwoven network of collagen fibers; Layered skin, around cartilages, around bones, capsules around some organs
- 3. Elastic tissue: Made of elastic fibers; Elastic ligaments and spinal vertebrae
Fluid connective tissue
- - Watery matrix of dissolved proteins
- - Carries specific cell types; red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
ex: blood and lymph
Loose connective tissue proper
- 1. Areolar: (haireolar) open framework, elastic fibers, holds blood vessels, capillary beds and nerves
- 2. Adipose tissue: White fat stores triglycerides, absorbs shock, insulation; Brown fat more vascularized, has many mitochondria; Adipocytes do not divid, they shrink and expand
- 3. Reticular tissue: provides support with supportive fibers (reticular fibers); reticular organs are organs built around a framework
Supporting connective tissue
- 1. Cartilage: gel type ground substance for shock absorption and protection
- 2. Bone: Calcified, for weight support
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
- 1. Hyaline cartilage
- 2. Elastic cartilage
- 3. Fibrocartilage
- -Stiff, flexible support
- -Reduces friction between bones
- -Found in synovial joints, rib tips, sternum and trachea
- -Supportive but bends easily
- -Returns to original shape
- -Found in external ear and epiglottis
- -Limits movement
- -Prevents bone-bone contact
- -Prevents compression
- -Pads knee joints
- -Found between pubic bones and intervertebral
- Made up of:
- 1.Matrix: Strong, resists shattering
- 2. Osteocytes: highly vascularized (canaliculi) arranged around central canals within matrix
- 3. Periosteum: Covers bone surfaces; fibrous layer; cellular layer
What are the 4 types of membranes?
- 1. Mucous membranes
- 2. Serous membranes
- 3. Cutaneous membranes
- 4. Synovial membranes
- -Line passageways with external connections (epithelial cells)
- -Epithelial surfaces must be moist to reduce friction and facilitate absorption and excretion
- -Lines cavities not open to the outside
- -They are thin, but strong
- -Have fluid transudate to reduce friction
- -parietal and visceral portions
- -SKIN! surface of the body
- -Water resistant, thick and dry
- -Surrounds synovial joints
- -Produces synovial fluid as a lubricant
- -Protects the end of the bone
- -Lacks a true epithelium
- 1. Skeletal: long and thin, muscle fibers, do not divide, multiple nuclei, striated, voluntary
- 2. Cardiac: cardiocytes, form branching networks connected at intercalated discs (gap junctions), striated, involuntary
- 3. Smooth: small and tapered, can divide and regenerate, not striated, involuntary
- 1.Neurons: nerve cell, performs electrical communication
- 2. Neuroglia: house keepers, supporting cells, repair and supply nutrients to neurons
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