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1) is a people's way of life that is
2) from generation to generation.
are rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
1) are norms of great significance. They are thought to be 2) to the well-being of society.
in other words, if we have been properly 1) , we will 2) ourselves before breaking a norm.
- 1) socialized
- 2) mentally sanction
Artifacts, or physical objects, have no or use apart from the meanings people give them.
Both the creation and the transmission of culter depnda heavily on the humanity on the human capasity to develop and use 1) ,the most significant of which is 2) .
1) frees humans from the limits of
2) and 3) .
- 1) Language
- 2) time
- 3) place
A 1) is a subculture that deliberately and consiously 2) certain central aspects of the dominant culter.
- 1) counterculter
- 2) opposes
This tendency to judge in relation to one's own cultural standards is referred to as .
1) - the psychological and 2) stress we may experience when confronted with a radically different cultural enviroment- is one such negative consequence.
- 1) Culture shock
- 2) social
But socialization is not limited to the early years; it is a process enabling people to fit into all kinds of social groups.
1) , holding, 2) , and communication appear to be essential to human 3) .
- 1) Touching
- 2) stroking
- 3) development
The 1) persective views socialization. .. as a wy of perpetuating 2) .
First, we 1) appear to others. Next, we imagine the 2) of others to our imagined appearance. Finally, we evaluate ourselves according to how we imagine others have 3) us.
- 1) imagined
- 2) reaction
- 3) judged
Those whos judgements are more impportant to our self-concept are called - .
as this change taked place, a -as intergrated conception of the norm, values, and beliefs on one's community or society-emerges.
once the self-concept has been fractured, -the process of learning to adopt new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors - can begin.
The first year of school involves a transition from an environment saturated with personal relationships to an .
A primary function of the 1) in informing children about their 2) .
However, after hundreds of studies involving more than 10,000 children, most now conclude that watching 1) behavior on television significantly increases 2) .
- 1) aggressive
- 2) aggression
In other words, in our minds, we carry a for various group situations.
each of these labels refers to a 1) - a position a person 2) within a social structure.
As 1) status is neither earned nor chosen; it is assigned to us... An 2) status is earned or chosen because people have some degree of 3) and choice.
- 1) Ascribed
- 3) Control
statuses are important because they influence most other aspects of a person's life.
"1) are the culturally defined 2)
and 3) attached to a status..."
- 1) Roles
- 2) rights
To continue the stage metaphor, roles are the
1) that indicates to the actors ( holders) what beliefs, feelings, and actions are expected of them.
Role is the actual conduct, or behavior, activating a role.
Role 1) occurs when the performance of a role in one clashes with that in another status.
In societies in which the division of labor is 1) - in which most people are doing the same type of work - 2) solidarity is the foundation for social unity.
This modern industrial society is based on 1) solidarity. It achieves social 2) through a complex of specialized statuses that force interdependence among members of a society.
The Thomas theorm
"If a person defines situations are real, they are real in their consequences."
The problem with the meadia" It creates needs" be advertising
We are tempted to buy things we don't need... with money we don't have... to impress people we don't know....
Agents of socialization
- 1) the family
- 2) Daycare
- 3) school
- 4) peers
- 5) religion
- 6) mass media
The cultural principles
- social factor such as :
- 1) roles
- 2) religion
- 3) social class
Some U.S. values
- 1) money & power
- 2) looks
- 3) athletic ability, talents
- 4) Intelligence
Problems with U.S. values
- 1) short-term
- 2) can't garenteed to make someone happy
- 3) are largely out of our control
The central sociological significance of language
- 1) shared past ex 9/11 attack
- 2) shared future - can help us plan and anticipate
- 3) shared view of reality, and shapes reality (firemen 9/11)