Zoology review 3.txt
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Zoology review 3.txt
description "Arthropods & Echinoderms"
fileName "Zoology review 3"
What are the general characteristics of the phylum Arthropods?
1) Bilateral symmetry
2) Triploblastic cellular level
3) Coelomate body cavity
What are the unify characteristics of Arthropods?
1) Segmented bodies
2) jointed appendages
Do Arthropods have a open or closed circulation?
Do Arthropods have a complete or incomplete digestive system?
Arthropods typically repoduce
Dioecious and dimorphic
What are some examples of Arthropods sensory structures?
1) compound eye
2) very alert to their environment/nitch
3) structures for touch, smell, balance chemical reception
What are the 5 subphyla. Of Arthropods (know examples of organism with each group)?
1) Trilobita- All species extinct
2) Chelicerata- spiders, ticks, horse shoe crabs
3) Crustacea- shrimp, crayfish, crab
4) Myriapoda- centipedes, millipedes
5) Hexapoda- insects
What are the 3 classes of subphyla Chelicerata?
1) Arachnida- spiders, ticks, scorpions
2) Merostomata- giant water scorpions (extinct)
3) Pycnogondia- sea spiders
How do members of Chelicerata differ from other Arthropods?
They have no antennae
What is Hexapoda 1 main class?
Hexapodas were the first animal to do what?
What is subphyla Myriapoda 2 classes?
1) Diplopoda- millipedes- non threatening
2) Chilopoda- cenipedes- agressive
What are the characteristics of the subphyla Trilobite?
1) 3 body lobes
2) all extinct
What are the 3 types of metamorphosis among Arthropods?
1) Amatobolis- none- look like parents
2) Hemimatabolis- partial
3) Halotabolis- complete
What is a pro and con if metamorphosis?
If thhey do t look like their parents then no competition food
Have to build up alot of energy
What are some examples for each larva form ( aquatic vs. terrestrial )?
1) Nymphs- terrestial- grasshopper
2) Naiads- aquatic- dragonflies
What are the different types of pupal form?
1) pupa- mosquitoes
2) cocoon- moths
3) chrysalis- butterflies
What adaptations do Arthropods have to prevent dessication?
1) Epicutical makes waxy and varnish layer
2) ability to close spiracle
3) fluid is extracted from food and fecal material
4) matabolism allows production of water
5) may enter duapause/hybornation
What are the 2 main appendage types?
Which subphyla has which locomotion appendage type?
1) Uniramoud- insects, myriapods
2) Biramous- crustacea, chelicerata
What are the different methods of respiration? ( terrestrial and aquatic )
1) Terrestrial- tracheal system
2) Aquatic- various forms of gills
What are the 2 main feeding structures?
Which subphylum uses which feeding structures?
1) Chelicerae- crustacea, chelicerata
2) Mandible- insects, myriapods
What are the benefits if having a exoskeleton?
1) structure support
3) joint cuticle- allows mobility
4) system of levers for muscle attachment and movement
What are the pro of insects to humans?
1) products- honey, wax, silk
2)pollination of plants
3) biological control
4) turn soil, promote decaying prosses
5) important to food webs
6) studied by scientists
What are some con of insect and humans?
1) some are parasites
2) some carry harmful disease
3) feed on crops and transmit plant diseasea
4) some are poisonous to humans
Why are Arthropods such a successful group of animals?
3) ability to adapt
Why are insects such a successful group of animals?
Ability to fly
What are the social group hierarchy?
1) complex societies with division of labor
2) based on castle differentiation
What are the role of each ant colony member?
1) Queen - controls colony, only reproductive female
2) Drones - fertile males that mate with queen
3) Workers - sterile females who father food and care for young
4) Soldiers - protect and defend colony
What are the general characteristics of the phylum Echinoderms?
1) Pentaradial symmetry
2) Triploblastic cellular level
3) coelomate body cavity
Do Echinoderms have a open or closed circulatory system?
Water vascular system
Do Echinoderms have a complete ir incomplete digestion?
How do Echinoderms reproduce?
What is the flow of water through the water vascular system?
2) stone canal
3) ring canal
4) radial canal
5) lateral canal
6) tube feet
What is the benefit of pentaradial symmetry?
1) stronger body structure
2) uniform distribution of sensory and feeding structures
Open vs. Pyloris stomach
1) (Open) Cardiac stomach - stomach that comes out of body
2) Pyloris stomach - act as digestive gland
What are the 5 classes, examples, and characteristics of Echinoderms?
1) Crinodea - sea lilies - mouth and anus present on oral surface
2) Opniuroidea - brittle star - tube feet not used for locomotion
3) Echinodea - sea urchins - movable spines
4) Asrerodies - sea stars - broad arms, indistinct from central disc
5) Holothuroudea - sea cucumber - body soft and cylindrical and without arms
What are the unify characteristics of the phylum Echinoderms?
1) prickly skin
2) water vascular system
Hormones used to regulate molting, reproduction, metabolism, and heart rate
Emission of light by living organism
Having 2 branches appendages on arthropods
Dorsal ( upper) section of exoskeleton
Exoskeleton tough protective laye
Light reflecting organelles
Molting shedding exoskeleton
Outer layer on skeleton of arthropods
Hard outer covering of animal
1st pair swimmeretes uses in reproduction
Not learned, controlled behavior, very organized activities
Segmentation of body parts, similar to annelids
Chemicals released to attract a mate
Thick layer below epicutical
External opening to tracheal system
Appendages used for locomotion
Ex head thorax and abdomen, segmants fused into functional groups
Specialization of body segment for particular function
Projection that protects young and eggs
Tail like paddle for swift movement backwards
Side furtgest from mouth ( butt)
Contains the tube feet
Casting off body parts for ability to get away from predator
Chamber to release all fluids ( chicken)
Connects between radial canal and tube feet
Opening to outside of the body
Calsium plate of exoskeleton
Dermal branch or skin gills, used for respiration and waste removal
Pincher like tiny jaws manipulated by muscles
Radial symmetry bases on 5 symmetry division
Allows water flow from ring canal to lateral canal
Regrow body parts
Feather, gill like structures in sea cucumbers for gas exchange
Attached to radial canal connects to ambulacral groove of each ray
Connects madreporite opening to ring canal
Endoskeleton of echinoids
Extension of the canal system ured for locomotion