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- Filter feeders
- Latteraly flattened and translucent
Skull encloses brain and sensory structures
What are the 3 subphylum of chordata
What is an example and characteristics of the subphyla Urochordata?
What is an example and characteristics of the subphylum cephalochordata?
- Lanceletes, Amphioxus
- Head and tail
What is an example and characteristics of the subphylum Vertebrata?
What are the 5 characteristics of all Chordata?
- Presence of a notochord
- Dorsal tubular nerve cord
- Phargngeal slits or pouches
- Post anal tail
What is the importance of a notochord
Supportive rod, runs down body like tail or din (tailbone)
What is the importance of a tubular nerve cord?
Controls senses and body function
What is the importance of pharangealgeal slits?
- Filter feeding
- Gas exchange
What is the importance of endosyle?
Matabolism (thyroid gland)
What is the importance of a postanal tail?
Noto bast anus
What are the 5 classes of fish?
What is an example of myxini?
What is an example of petromyzontida?
What is an example of chondrichtheyes?
What is an example of actinopterygii?
What is an example of sareopterygii?
- Lobed-finned fish
- Lung fish
Reproduction of fish
- External fertilization
- Lateral lines
- Excellent eyes
- Ampulla of lorenzini
What are the characteristics of Agnathan?
- Lack of jaws
- Internal cssification scales
- Paired fins
- Have pore (like gill opening)
- Eel like nodies
What are the characteristics of Gnathostomata?
- Jawed fish with paired appendages
- Jaws evolved from anterior pairs of skeleton support for the gill slits
Adaptations to life/ locomotion in water.
- Streamline body shape
- Muscoid secretion lubricated body
- Tail fin is tail or forked
Embryo receives nourishment from the maternal blood stream from secretions of mothee
Lays eggs shorty after fertilization.
Retaining development of young in uterus
Osmoregulation of marine and fresh water fish?
- Regulation of internal concentrating of salts and water
- Fresh- loss ions too much water
- Marine-too many ions loss if water
What are the 3 tail types?
- Hetercercal- shortburst
- Homocercal- fast swimmers
- Diphycercal - average
What was a major development in vertebrate evolution and how it is nelieved to be formed?
Jaws- formed from first pair of pharyngeal gill arches
Pro/con of parental care
Pro- increase chances of offspring survival
Con- greater energy expenditure and a risk to the parent
Lampry larvae form
Ampulla of lorenzini
Electroreceptors that pick up on bioelectric fields surrounding prey
Modified structures that assist in reproduction
Detection of minute electrical currents produced across the cell membrane of the prey
Bone in the skeleton or scales that replace cartilage developmentally
Lateral line system
Detects low frequency vibrations in the water. Helps sharks locate prey
More power and finer control. Large body movement
A movable flap covering each gill that can pump water over the gills. Allowing fish to stay stationary
Teeth and skin modification in sharks
Serve as modified gill slits that open into the pharynx,and 5 pairs of gill slits
Compound found in shark liver oil
Gas filled chamber aids in sinking or floting
What are the 3 orders of amphibia
What is an example of urodela?
Salamaders- passes a tail through out life
What is an example of Gymonophiona?
Carcilians- legless wormlike
What is an example of Anura
Fros,toads- tied to water,first true animal to exhibit a true tonge
Lateral line system
Reproduction of amphibia
- Internal fertilization
- Some give birth others lay eggs
Adaptations to terrestrial life (amphibia)
Skeleton modification: flattened skull,fewer bones than fish flexible
Skin secretion prevent drying, producing toxins aids in molting
Origin of Tetrapods
Air filled cavities ( swim bladder) and onternal nares
Bony paired fins- provided support and movement on land
How do Amphilbia prevent desiccation?
- 1) Nocturnal behavior
- 2) Habitat with high humidity
- 3) Reduce body surface exposed to air
- 4) Skin can absorb water on moist surface
- 5) Temporary store water from bladder a lymph sacs
Amphibia ectothermic vs endothermic
Ectothermuc- rely on environment for temperature control
How do amphibia regulate body temperature
Bask in sun or on warm surface after meals
Discribe the skin of amphibians
Thin requires moisture
Function os amphibia skin pro/con
- Pro- thin enough to breath threw
- Con- drys out fast
How to regulate water
Osmoregulation of aquatic/terrestrial amphibians
Kidneys same as fish
More of a bite useing tonge
Amphibia methods for breathing
Amphibia was the first to have what?
Male grabs female during reproduction
Aids in breathing hold in air
Respitory gas exchange across vascularized membrane of the mouth
Vascular nets in skin gor respiration of oxygen and carbon deoxide with the external environment
The change from young to adult
Four limber vertebrea
What r the 4 orders of reptiles
What is an example of testudines
What is an example of squamata
What is an example of sphenodonta
What is an example of crocodylia
Sensory perception of Reptilia
Jacobs organ, pit organ, pridal eyes, vibrations
Reproduction in reptilia
Reptilia were first to produce what
Global distribution of Tuataras
Ectothermic vs endothermic among reptilia
Ectothermic external heat collection
4 extraembryotic membranes (structures inside egg)
- 1) yolk sac
- 2) embryon
- 3) coreon
- 4) allantace
Loose apendages to run away
Pouches found in some reptiles
Heat- sensitive organ on each side of the eye and nostril
Able to stretch to eat
How do reptilia keep from loosing water
Lipids in thick skin
- Allows crocs to hold breath
- Protects brain
Bottom of turtals shell
Shingle like skin overlapping body covering
Median perietal eye
Found on Tuatares believed to aid in detection of threat