AP 1 Midterm Study Guide

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acis3345
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AP 1 Midterm Study Guide
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2013-02-20 10:03:19
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Midterm study guide questions chapters 1-6
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  1. What
    different types of tissues are there? (there are 4)
    • Epithelial
    • Connective 
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  2. What are the functions or purpose of each tissue type?
    • Epithelial
    • -covers the body and many of its parts
    • Connective
    • -most abundant, widely spread, has many functions
    • Muscle
    • -
    • Nervous
    • -provide rapid communication between body structures and control of body functions
  3. Explain DNA replication and the divisions of each and each
    divisions function?
    • Mitosis
    • -Interphase
    • Going about its usual functions
    • -Prophase
    • chromatin condenses into chromosomes 
    • chromatids become attached at the centromere
    • spindle fibers appear
    • the nucleoulus and nuclear envelope disapear
    • -Metaphase
    • chromosomes align across the center of the cell
    • -Anaphase
    • centromeres break apart
    • chromosomes move away from the center of the cell
    • clevege furrow appears
    • -'Telephase
    • Nuclear envelope and both nuclei appear
    • cytoplasm and organelles divide equally
    • the process of cell division is complete
  4. Explain Scientific Method.
    A systematic approach to discovery
  5. Definition of a cell
    smallest structural units of living things
  6. List in order how “we” are structured for the structural
    levels of organization.
    • cells
    • tissues
    • organs
    • systems
  7. List and explain anatomical terms.
    • Anterior
    • -towards the front
    • Posterior
    • -towards the back
    • Superior
    • -towards the top
    • Inferior
    • -towards the feet
    • Medial
    • -towards the mid-line of the body
    • Lateral
    • -towards the side of the body
    • Proximal
    • -nearest the trunk of the body (point of origin)
    • Distal
    • -away from the trunk (point of origin)
    • Superficial
    • -towards the surface
    • Deep
    • -away from the surface
  8. List and explain the planes of our body sections.
    • Sagittal
    • -vertical left and right
    • Frontal (Coronal)
    • - vertical front and back
    • Transverse
    • -horozontal top and bottom
    • Midsagittal
    • -vertical cut divides into 2 equal halves
  9. What is the difference between the 4 versus the 9 abdominal
    divisions?
    • 4 qudrants
    • -easier to locate organs
    • 9 regions
    • -more precise
  10. Atom
    basic unit of matter
  11. Please explain chemical bonding.
    • Bonds formed to make atoms more stable
    • -considered stable when outer energy level is "full" (maximum number of electrons in the outer shell)
  12. What is homeostasis and chemical balance within our own body
    system?
    • Homeostasis
    • -relative uniformity of the normal body's enviroment
    • Chemical Balance
  13. Explain ATP
    • Active Transport Process
    • -requires energy to move substances from a low consentration to a high concentration
    • -produced in mitochondria
    • -
  14. Please explain the movement of substances through the cell
    membrane and what they are called and how they work.
    • Primary Passive Transport Process
    • -Diffusion
    • -the process by which substances scatter themselces evenly throughout an available space
    • ---osmosis
    • -----diffusion of water throught a selectively permeable membrane in the presence of at least one impermeant solute
    • ---dialysis
    • ----some solutes move across a selectively permeable membrane by diffusion while others do not
    • -Filtration
    • The movement of water and solutes throught a membrane
    • pushing force
  15. Explain Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis
    • Phagocytosis
    • --the process that permits a cell to engulf and "eat" relatively large particles
    • Pinocytosis
    • --incorporate fluids or dissolved substances into cells by trapping them in pockets of plasma membrane the pinches off inside the cell
  16. Explain DNA vs RNA
    • DNA
    • -
  17. List the shapes of tissue structure
    • Squamous
    • -flat and scale like
    • Cuboidal
    • -cube like
    • Columnar
    • -higher then they are wide
    • Transitional
    • -varies in shape, can stretch
  18. List the layers of the skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermal-epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Subutaneous tissue
  19. What is the purpose of the skin?
    • Stores energy
    • shock absorbing pad
    • insulates the body
    • protects underlying tissues
  20. What are the layers of burns and briefly explain what is
    involved in each type of burn classification listed in your book and the one
    that was not but is listed in healthcare and we discussed.
    • First Degree
    • reddening of the skin
    • no blistering
    • epidermis may peel in 1-3 days
    • Second Degree
    • always causes injury to the upper layer of the dermis
    • damage sweat glands, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands
    • Third Degree
    • Complete destruction of the epidermis 
    • tissue death and destruction of the muscles
    • Fourth Degree
    • All the way down to the bone
  21. What is included in the axial skeleton and appendicular
    skeleton?
    • Axial Skeleton
    • Skull
    • -cranial bones
    • -ear bones
    • -face bones
    • Spine
    • -vertebrae
    • Thorax
    • -ribs
    • -sternum
    • Hyoid Bone
    • Appendicular Skeleton
    • Upper extermities
    • -clavacle
    • -scapula
    • -humerus
    • -radius
    • -ulna
    • -carpal bones
    • -metacarpls
    • -phalanges
    • Lower Extremities
    • -coxal bone
    • -femur
    • -patella
    • -tibia
    • -fibula
    • -tarsal bones
    • -metatarsals
    • -phalanges
  22. How many vertebrae are in each area of the spine?
    • Cervical-7
    • Thoracic-12
    • Lumbar-5
  23. Explain true ribs, false ribs, free floating ribs, and
    explain what makes them called this.
    • True ribs
    • -upper 7 
    • -attach to sternum directly by costal cartilages
    • False ribs
    • -lower 5 pairs
    • -first 3 attach by costal cartilage, the last 2 connect to the cartilage from the first 3
    • free floating ribs
    • -does not attach to the cartilage or sternum
  24. Where is red and yellow bone marrow made?
    • Red
    • -in the epiphysis
    • Yellow
    • -in the medullary cavity
  25. What is the largest bone of the body?
    Femur
  26. What other name is the growth plate called and why is it not
    good if a child breaks the bone at the growth plate?
    • epiphyseal plate
    • because it could cause the bone to not grow properly therefore causing it to not grow at the same rate of the other bones
  27. What type of joints do we have and explain each type and
    give an example.
    • Hinge-elbow, knee
    • Pivot-head
    • Saddle-thumb
    • Condyloid-distal end of the radius into the carpal bones
    • Ball and Socket-hip, shoulder
    • Gliding-vertebrae

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