Gastrointestinal Disease 2
Card Set Information
Gastrointestinal Disease 2
Animal Diseases Three
What things make up the small intestines?
What does microvilli do?
brush border to absorb nutrients
What do crypt cells do?
produce new cells that replace old villus cells as they slough off the top
What do goblet cells do?
What types of hormones are in the small intestines?
gastric inhibitory peptide
What does secretin do?
causes biocarbonate to be released from the pancreas
causes bile production to increase in the liver
What does cholecystokinin do?
causes digestive enzymes to be released in the pancreas
causes the gall bladder to empty
What does gastric inhibitory peptide do?
decreases activity of the stomach
What are the different diseases of the small intestines?
impairment of the absorptive villous surface
malabsorption, diarrhea, weight loss
small intestinal neoplasia
What is diarrhea?
increased frequency of defecation
increased fluidity of stool
increased volume of stool
What is the most common type of diarrhea and what causes it?
diet change, drug therapy, stress
What are the different causes of diarrhea?
What are the clinical signs of parasitic diarrhea?
maybe blood in the vomit or diarrhea
poor hair coat
How do we diagnose parasitic diarrhea?
How do we treat parasitic diarrhea?
anthelminitcs for hooks, whips, and rounds
antiprotozoals for giardia and coccidia
What type of viruses cause viral diarrhea?
canine corona virus
feline corona virus (FIP)
feline panleukopenia (feline parvovirus)
What part of the body is affected with canine parvovirus?
intestinal villi are affected and they collapse
Where is canine parvovirus shed?
shed in feces, vomit, and saliva
How is canine parvovirus spread?
Can we find canine parvovirus in the environment?
Which dogs are predisposed to canine parvovirus?
What are the clinical signs of canine parvovirus?
How do we diagnose canine parvovirus?
ELISA test for parvovirus
decreased WBC count
viral detection in stool
How do we treat canine parvovirus?
fluid therapy with KCL, dextrose, B vitamins
How do we treat canine parvovirus?
keep patient warm, dry, and clean
wear protective clothing when treating patient
food dip in isolation area
What kind of client education do we need to provide for canine parvovirus?
the patient is contagious to other dogs - avoid parks, kennels, dog shows, obedience classes
clean up fecal material for the next few weeks
use 10% clorox solution
Where is the canine corona virus shed?
Which is more damaging to intestinal villi, corona virus or parvovirus?
What are clinical signs of canine corona virus?
inapparent to severe gastroenteritis
anorexia, lethargy, dehydration
vomiting may have blood or mucus
yellow-green to orange malodorous diarrhea that may have blood or mucus
persistent or intermittent for 3 - 4 weeks
How do we diagnose canine corona virus?
electron microscope for viral identification
How do we treat canine corona virus?
How do we prevent canine corona virus?
What are the different names of feline panleukopenia?
feline infectious enteritis
Is feline panleukopenia contagious?
Is feline panleukopenia fatal?
Which types of cats is panleukopenia the most severe in?
Which cells does feline panleukopenia affect?
affects rapidly growing and dividing cells in bone marrow, lymph tissue, intestinal epithelium, cerebellum and retinas of young animals
What can feline panleukopenia cause in pregnant queens?
cerebellar hypoplasia of kittens - tremors, incoordination
How is feline panleukopenia transmitted?
virus in abundant in all secretions
virus can survive in the environment for over one year
What are the clinical signs of feline panleukopenia?
most cases are subclinical
most patients that manifest illness are under one year old
abdominal pain - palpation may induce vomiting
thickened intestinal loops
cerebellar hypoplasia - normal mentation with incoordination and tremors
How do we diagnose feline panleukopenia?
usually based on clinical signs
CBC - WBC count under 500 WBC/ul
How do we treat feline panleukopenia?
vigorous fluid therapy
dextrose and KCL added to fluids if needed
plasma or whole blood transfusion
What causes bacterial diarrhea?
bacteria invade and damage intestinal epithelium
release enterotoxins which stimulate secretions, attach to mucosal surfaces, and produce cytotoxins
What types of bacteria cause bacterial diarrhea?
What are the clinical signs of bacterial diarrhea?
diarrhea may be bloody
may have fever
How do we diagnose bacterial diarrhea?
fresh saline smears
cytotoxin assay - titer for clostridium
How do we treat bacterial diarrhea?
fluid and electrolyte replacement
What is the difference between dietary sensitivity and dietary intolerance?
: immune mediated
: non-immunologic and can be a dietary indiscretion
What can an endoscopic exam help determine with dietary intolerance/sensitivity diarrhea?
help to determine the extent of mucosal damage
Which dietary substance could animals potentially not be able to handle with dietary intolerance/sensitivity?
What are the clinical signs for dogs with dietary intolerance/sensitivity involving the skin
non-seasonal pruritis in ears, face, feet, hindquarters
alopecia, scales, papules
epidermal collarettes, crusts, erosions, otitis
hyperpigmentation, lichenification, hot spots
What are the clinical signs for cats with dietary intolerance/sensitivity involving the skin?
non-seasonal pruritis in pinnae, face, head, neck feet
alopecia, miliary dermatitis
What are the GI clinical signs of dietary intolerance/sensitivity diarrhea?
diarrhea - mucus, blood
abdominal pain, discomfort
Which types of animals are the most affected by dietary intolerance/sensitivity diarrhea?
can affect any age, but most commonly in dogs under 1 year and cats from 2 - 5 years
How do we diagnose and treat dietary intolerance/sensitivity diarrhea?
avoid treats, flavored treats, flavored medication, vitamins, coprophagia
treat and resolve concurrent skin and ear infections
serum allergy testing
How do we do a dietary trial for intolerance/sensitivity diarrhea?
exclusion, elimination diet
protein source not usually eaten by the pet
need a trail of at least 12 weeks
can try oral prednisone
What are the most common food allergens in dogs?
any protein can be involved
What are the most common food allergens in cats?
What are the two types of intestinal neoplasia?
adenocarcinoma - more common in older cats than dogs
lymphosacroma - more common in cats than dogs
What are the clinical signs of intestinal neoplasia?
clinical signs are progressive
signs related tot he location and growth of the tumor
metastasis can occur
signs of partial GI obstruction
may have melena
may have diarrhea, vomiting
How do we diagnose intestinal neoplasia?
palpate abdominal mass
intestinal wall thickens
endoscopy for biopsy of upper GI tract
minimum data base - anemia, hypoproteinemia
What will we see on a contrast radiograph with intestinal neoplasia?
thickened bowel walls
abnormal lumen diameter
How do we treat intestinal neoplasia?
surgical removal if possible
chemotherapy - cats respond better than dogs
antibiotics if bacterial overgrowth
What kind of client education do we need to provide for intestinal neoplasia?
prognosis for adenocarcinoma is poor
may survive 7 months to 2 years with treatment
cats with lymphosarcoma respond well to chemotherapy - remission up to 2 years
supportive and nutritional care is critical
new cancer diets are available through Hills
What is the function of the colon?
reabsorption of water and electrolytes
microbial fermentation of undigested material
production of vitamins K and B
What are the most common signs of large bowel disease?
straining to defecate
blood in the stool
increased mucus in the stool
What are the different types of large intestines diseases?
What are the causes of intussesception?
Where does intussesception occur?
smaller, proximal segment of the intestines
invaginates in the larger portion of the large bowel
What can intussesception cause?
causes a partial to complete blockage
ischemia, bowel necrosis
What are the clinical signs of intussusception?
How do we diagnose intussusception?
palpate a sausage-like mass in the cranial abdomen
ultrasound - multilayered concentric rings
contrast radiograph - barium
How do we treat intussusception?
restrict sold food for 24 hours post-op, then begin bland food
recurrence is infrequent
puppies should be dewormed on a proper schedule to prevent bowel irritation and intussusception
What can cause megacolon?
loss of normal colonic function
usually dysfunction of colonic smooth muscle
severe fecal impaction
middle aged to older cat
persistent distension leads to loss of colonic motility
water continues to be resorbed from the feces
feces becomes like concrete
unable to pass feces
mucosal injury from intraluminal pressure
What are the clinical sings of megacolon?
straining to defecate
small, hard feces, or liquid feces with or without blood
How do we diagnose megacolon?
history and physical exam
minimum data base
radiographs - distended colon
How do we treat megacolon?
correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities
remove impacted feces
How do we remove impacted feces?
warm water enemas, lubricants
do not use sodium phosphate enemas in small dogs or cats - electrolyte disturbance
may need forceps
What is the long term maintenance for megacolon?
dietary fiber - psyllium, oat bran, canned pumpkin
laxative - DSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), lactulose
prokinetic agent - Propulsid (cisapride), nizatidine or ranitidine
What kind of client education do we need to provide for megacolon?
medical treatment for the life of the cat
may be solved with surgery