Math Test 1

The flashcards below were created by user haggertyjenn on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Common Core creates potential for collaborative groups in states and districts to get more economic mileage for ____, ____, and ____.
    • curriculum development
    • assessment
    • professional development
  2. Intent of the Common Core: ____, ____, ____, and ____.
    • the same goals for all students
    • coherence
    • focus
    • clarity and specificity
  3. ____ and ____ are emphasized equally in the Common Core.
    • Conceptual understanding
    • procedural skills
  4. NCTM states that coherence also means that ____, ____, and ____ are aligned.
    • instruction
    • assessment
    • curriculum
  5. Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified in the Common Core.  ____ of concepts is stressed, which means that time is spent on a topic and on learning the topic well.
    Deep learning
  6. ____ and ____ are clearly defined in Common Core.
    • Skills
    • concepts
  7. Common Core sets the expectation that students are able to apply ____ and ____ to new situations.
    • concepts
    • skills
  8. CCSSM stands for ____.
    Common Core State Standards for Mathematics
  9. The Common Core proposes a set of Mathematical Practices that all teachers should develop in their students.  These practices are similar to NCTM’s ____ ____ from the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics.
    Mathematical Processes
  10. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    1) Make sense of problems and ____ in solving them.
  11. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    2) Reason ____ and ____.
    • abstractly
    • quantitatively
  12. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    3) Construct viable ____ and critique the ____ of others.
    • arguments
    • reasoning
  13. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    4) ____ with Mathematics.
  14. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    5) Use appropriate ____ strategically.
  15. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    6) Attend to ____.
  16. CCSSM Mathematical Practices:
    7) Look for and make use of ____.
  17. CCSSM Mathematical Practices: 
    8) Look for and express regularity in ____ ____.
    repeated reasoning
  18. Common Core Format: ____ are larger groups of related standards.  Standards from different --- may sometimes be closely related.  Overarching big ideas that connect topics across grades.
  19. Common Core Format: ____ are groups of related standards.  Standards from different --- may sometimes be closely related, because mathematics is a connected subject.
  20. Common Core Format: ____ define
    what students should be able to understand and be able to do.
  21. The format of the Common Core for Grades K-8 is 1)____, 2)____, and 3)____.
    Image Upload
    • Grade
    • Domain
    • Cluster
    • Standards
  22. ____ are content statements.
  23. For grades preK-8, a model of implementation can be found in NCTM’s ____ ____ ____.
    Curriculum Focal Points
  24. Build new knowledge from ____ ____.
    prior knowledge
  25. Provide opportunities to talk about ____.
  26. Build on opportunities for ____ ____.
    reflective thought
  27. Encourage ____ ____.
    multiple approaches
  28. Treat errors as ____ ____ ____.
    opportunities for learning
  29. ____ new content.
  30. Honor ____.
  31. You must have a ____ and a ____ to have mathematics proficiency.
    • conceptual understanding
    • procedural understanding
  32. ____ ____ is knowledge about the relationship or foundational ideas of a topic.
    Conceptual understanding
  33. ____ ____ is knowledge of the rules and procedures in carrying out mathematical processes and also the symbolism used to represent mathematics.
    Procedural understanding
  34. What are the five strands of mathematical proficiency?
    • 1) conceptual understanding
    • 2) procedural fluency
    • 3) strategic competence
    • 4) adaptive reasoning
    • 5) productive disposition
  35. Comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations, and relations
    conceptual understanding
  36. Skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently, and appropriately
    procedural fluency
  37. Ability to formulate, represent, and solve mathematical problems
    strategic competence
  38. Capacity for logical thought, reflection, explanation, and justification
    adaptive reasoning
  39. Habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy.
    productive disposition
  40. The most critical period for the development of whole number place value is grades ____ ____ ____.
    pre-k to 3
  41. Children are exposed to
    patterns in grades ____ and ____.
    • K
    • 1
  42. Children formally learn that groups of ten are connected to our place-value system in grade ____.
  43. Understanding of patterns and place value are extended and decimals are introduced in grades ____ and ____.
    • 3
    • 4
  44. In grades ____ and ____, ideas with whole numbers are extended to decimals.
    • 4
    • 5
  45. ____ ____ requires an integration of new and difficult-to-construct concepts of groupings by tens with procedural knowledge of how groups are recorded in our place-value scheme, how numbers are written, and how they are spoken.
    Place-value understanding
  46. What are three different way sin which children begin counting?
    • 1) counting by ones
    • 2) counting by groups and singles
    • 3) counting by tens and ones
  47. This is the only way children can be convinced that quantities are equal before base-ten ideas develop.  (one-to-one correspondence)
    counting by ones
  48. This counting must be coordinated with a count by ones before it can be a means of telling “how many”.
    counting by groups and singles
  49. An idea or abstraction that represents a quantity
  50. A symbol representing numbers
  51. Used to describe how many elements are in a finite set
    cardinal number
  52. Numbers used to denote order, i.e., “second in line”
    ordinal number
  53. What five principles must students understand before they can engage in real counting?
    • 1) Any collection of real or imagines objects can be counted
    • 2) Counting numbers are arranged in a sequence that does not change
    • 3) One-to-one correspondence
    • 4) Order-irrelevance
    • 5) Cardinality principle
  54. One and only one number is used for each item counted, and each item is counted only once
    one-to-one correspondence
  55. The order in which items are counted is irrelevant
  56. There is a special significance to the last number counted. It is not only associated with
    the last item but also represents the total number of items in the set
    cardinality principle
  57. For the most basic strategies, children use physical objects (counters) or fingers to ____ ____ the action or relationships described in each problem.
    directly model
  58. Over time, children’s strategies become more abstract and efficient. ____ ____ strategies are replaced by more abstract
    Student-Invented Strategies/Counting Strategies, which in turn are replaced with ____ ____.
    • Direct Modeling
    • Number Facts
  59. This strategy is distinguished by a child’s explicit physical representation of each quantity in the problem and the action or relationship involving those quantities before counting the resulting set.
    direct modeling
  60. A child essentially recognizes that it is not necessary to actually construct and count sets. The answer can be figured out by focusing on the counting sequence itself.
  61. Physical objects are used to represent objects in a problem.
    direct modeling
  62. Physical objects are used to keep track of counts.
  63. Children learn ____ before other number combinations.
  64. Children learn sums of ____ relatively early.
  65. ____ ____ solutions are based on understanding relations between numbers.
    Derived Fact
  66. Even without specific instruction, most children use ____ ____ before they have mastered all their number facts at a recall level.
    Derived Facts
  67. When children have the opportunity to discuss
    alternative strategies, the use of ____ ____ becomes even more prevalent.
    Derived Facts
  68. Children appear to “____ ____” Direct Modeling, Counting, and Derived Fact strategies when number choices/kinds of quantities are consistent across problems.
    move through
  69. ____ ____ strategies are not easily used with some problem types.
    Direct Modeling
  70. ____ ____ are extensions of modeling strategies.
    Mental strategies
  71. Children learn ____ ____ and apply this knowledge to solve problems.
    number facts
  72. Children learn certain ____ ____ before others.
    number combinations
  73. Children often use a small set of memorized facts to derive solutions for problems involving other ____ ____.
    number combinations
  74. What are the three primary strategies used by children to solve math problems?
    • 1) modeling strategy
    • 2) split strategy
    • 3) increment/jump strategy
  75. Involves drawing pictures of tens and ones and
    counting, first by tens and then by ones
    modeling strategy
  76. Involves splitting the numbers in the strategy into smaller numbers that are easier to work with and then adding the totals together to get the answer
    split strategy
  77. Primarily through the use of an empty number line
    increment/jump strategy
  78. Mental strategies involve decomposing numbers by tens and ones
    modeling strategy
  79. Representational strategies involve modeling and carrying out operations using tens sticks and units and documenting using drawings of tens sticks and ones with ‘actions.’
    modeling strategy
  80. Notational strategies involve recording work with numbers as tens and ones
    split strategy
  81. Mental strategies involve holding one number in memory and then decomposing the second number, mentally joining or separating
    increment/jump strategy
  82. Representational strategies involve modeling and carrying out operation using an empty number line (which also provides written documentation)
    increment/jump strategy
  83. Classroom instruction is generally organized and orchestrated around ____ ____
    mathematical tasks
  84. The ____ with which students engage determine what they learn about mathematics and how they learn it
  85. The inability to enact ____ ____ well is what distinguished teaching in the U. S. from teaching in other countries that had better student performance on TIMSS
    challenging tasks
  86. “Not all tasks are____ ____, and different tasks will provoke different levels and kinds of student thinking.”
    created equal
  87. Task-Focused Activities: ____ between high and low cognitive demand mathematics tasks
  88. Task-Focused Activities: ____ the cognitive demands of high-level tasks during instruction
  89. A ____ ____ ____ task begins where the students are (zone of proximal development; scaffolding)
    high cognitive demand
  90. The problematic or engaging aspect of a ____ ____ ____ task is due to mathematics that students are to learn.
    high cognitive demand
  91. A ____ ____ ____ task requires justifications and explanations for answers and methods.
    high cognitive demand
  92. ____ ____ ____ tasks or activities are the vehicle through which the curriculum can be developed. Maintaining the cognitive demands of ____-____ tasks during instruction affects the learning that occurs.
    • high cognitive demand
    • high-level
  93. First step of the Mathematical Tasks Framework:
    TASKS as they appear in curricular/instructional materials or are designed by teachers
  94. Second step of the Mathematical Tasks Framework:
    TASKS as they are set up by the teacher
  95. Third step of the Mathematical Tasks Framework:
    TASKS as they are implemented by students
  96. Fourth step of the Mathematical Tasks Framework:
    TASKS as they are summarized by teacher and students
  97. Fifth step of the Mathematical Tasks Framework:
    Student learning
    Recognizing a number instantly in a pattern
    Uses colors to show separate patterns together so that you can recognize two different patterns make a whole
  100. Subitizing cards are both ____ and ____.
    • perceptual
    • conceptual
  101. What are the five process standards of NCTM?
    • 1) problem solving
    • 2) reasoning and proof
    • 3) representation
    • 4) communication
    • 5) connections
  102. What are the five proficiency strands of NCSM?
    • 1) conceptual understanding
    • 2) procedural fluency
    • 3) strategic competence
    • 4) adaptive reasoning
    • 5) productive reasoning
  103. What two things are combined to make up the eight standards in the Common Core?
    • 1) The five process standards of NCTM
    • 2) The five proficiency strands of NCSM
  104. What are the eight standards for mathematical practice under the Common Core?
    • 1) Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them
    • 2) Reason abstractly and quantitatively
    • 3) Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others
    • 4) Model with mathematics
    • 5) Use appropriate tools strategically
    • 6) Attend to precision
    • 7) Look for and make use of structure
    • 8) Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning
  105. Strategies become more ____ over time.
  106. An ____ has an equals sign.
  107. An ____ does not have an equals sign.
  108. What are the three primary strategies for solving problems that are invented by students?
    • 1) increment/jump strategy
    • 2) split strategy
    • 3) modeling strategy
  109. What are the three phases that are typical to mastering basic number combinations?
    • 1) counting strategies
    • 2) reasoning strategies
    • 3) mastery
  110. What are some of the reasoning strategies used for addition facts?
    • 1) one more
    • 2) two more
    • 3) using five as an anchor
    • 4) make 10
    • 5) doubles
    • 6) near doubles
  111. What are some of the reasoning strategies used for subtraction facts?
    • 1) subtraction as think addition
    • 2) down over ten
    • 3) take from ten
  112. What are the four basic types of addition and subtraction problems?
    • 1) joining
    • 2) separating
    • 3) part-part-whole comparisons
    • 4) comparison situations
  113. Using object counting or verbal counting to get an answer (counting on, direct modeling, etc.)
    counting strategies
  114. Using known information to logically figure out an answer
    reasoning strategies
  115. ›Developing meanings for operations
    operations sense
  116. ›Gaining a sense for the relationships among operations
    operations sense
  117. ›Determining which operation to use in a given situation
    operations sense
  118. ›Recognizing that the same operation can be applied in problem situations that seem quite different
    operations sense
  119. ›Developing a sense for the operations’ effects on numbers
    operations sense
  120. ›Realizing that operation effects depend upon the types of numbers involved
    operations sense
  121. ›There were significant positive correlations between ____ ____ of how their children solved addition and subtraction problems and their ____ ____ to solve the problem.
    • teachers' knowledge
    • children's ability
  122. ›Teachers who believed that children bring ____ to instruction and instruction should be built on that ____, had higher levels of ____ than did teachers who did not agree as strongly with that perspective.
    • knowledge
    • knowledge
    • achievement
  123. ›Classes with the highest levels of achievement were those of teachers who believed most strongly that the teacher was not the ____ ____ ____ ____ and that instruction should be designed to help children ____ ____ ____ ____ for themselves.
    • ultimate source of knowledge
    • construct solutions to problems
  124. What does CGI stand for?
    Cognitively Guided Instruction
  125. What are the basic ideas of CGI?
    • 1) ›Children bring to school informal or intuitive knowledge of mathematics.
    • 2) ›Children intuitively solve word problems by modeling the action and relations described in them.
    • 3) ›One of the most useful ways of classifying problems focuses on the types of action or relation described in the problem. Providing a framework to identify the relative difficulty of problems.
  126. A basic idea of CGI is that children bring informal or intuitive ____ of mathematics to school.
  127. A basic idea of CGI is that children intuitively solve word problems by ____ the action and relations described in them.
  128. A basic idea of CGI is that one of the most useful ways of classifying problems focuses on the types of ____ or ____ described in the problem, providing a framework to identify the relative difficulty of problems.
    • action
    • relation
  129. The teacher's role in CGI is to ›learn how students initially use ____ ____, ____, and how they evolve.
    • concrete materials
    • modeling
  130. The teacher's role in CGI is to ›focus is on what children ____ do rather than on what they ____ do.
    • CAN
    • cannot
  131. The teacher's role in CGI is to ›work back from ____ to find out what valid conceptions students do have.
  132. The teacher's role in CGI is to ›____ problems their students can solve.
  133. The teacher's role in CGI is to ›shift the emphasis from personally finding ways of ____ ____ ____ to the students ____ ____ ____ representations.
    • representing mathematical knowledge
    • constructing their own
  134. ›Lucy has 8 fish.  She wants to buy 5 more fish.  How many fish would Lucy have then?
    8 + 5 = ?
    join result unknown
  135. ›Janelle has 7 trolls in her collection.  How many more does she have to buy to have 11 trolls?
    7 + ? = 11
    join change unknown
  136. ›Sandra has some pennies.  George gave her 4 more.  Now Sandra has 12 pennies.  How many pennies did Sandra have to begin with?
    ? + 4 = 12
    join initial unknown
  137. ›TJ had 13 chocolate chip cookies.  At lunch she ate 5 of them.  How many cookies did TJ have left?
    13 - 5 = ?
    separate result unknown
  138. ›11 children were in the sandbox.  Some children went home.  There were 3 children still playing in the sandbox.  How many children went home?
    11 - ? = 3
    separate change unknown
  139. ›Max had some money.  He spent $9.00 on a video game.  Now he has $7.00 left.  How much money did Max have to start with?
    ? - $9 = $7
    separate initial unknown
  140. ›Susan has 8 red apples and 5 green apples. How many apples does she have?
    8 red + 5 green = ? apples
    part-part-whole ~ whole unknown
  141. ›Brandy has 16 Gummy Bears. 8 are red and the rest are green. How many green Gummy Bears does she have?
    16 gummy bears = 8 red + ? green
    part-part-whole ~ part unknown
  142. ›Willy has 12 crayons.  Lucy has 7 crayons.  How many more crayons does Willy have than Lucy?
    12 - 7 = ?
    compare difference unknown
  143. ›George has 4 more pennies than Sandra.  Sandra has 8 pennies.  How many pennies does George have?
    8 + 4 = ?
    compare larger unknown
  144. ›Lydia had 4 fewer pencils than Henry.  Henry has 10 pencils.  How many pencils does Lydia have?
    10 - 4 = ?
    compare smaller unknown
  145. What is another term for the borrowing method?
    decomposition method
  146. ›This method is based upon the idea that adding the same amount to two different numbers will not change the different between the two numbers.
    Equal Additions Method
  147. ›Also know as the additions method.  The answer is found by directly relating the answer to additions.
    Austrian Algorithm
Card Set:
Math Test 1
2013-02-17 02:16:09
math test one

Preparation for math test one
Show Answers: