buo test 1

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buo test 1
2013-02-17 00:49:24

bio test 1
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  1. what is biology?
    scientific study of life
  2. What are the themese of biology?
    • 1. All forms of licfe share common properties
    • 2. Evolution
    • 3. Correlation between structure and function
  3. What are the properties of life?
    • Order: the arrangement of organism
    • Reproduction: babies birth
    • Growth and Devlopment: DNA, inherited info
    • Energy Processing: Eating things for energy
    • Response to enviornment: shiver when cold
    • Regulation: Body temp, homeostasis
    • Evolutionary Adaptation: Adaptating to enviornment
  4. Life's Hierarchy of Organization
    • Biosphere: All enivornments on Earth
    • Ecosystem: Physical components of area and organism
    • Community: entire array of organisms in ecosystem
    • Population: all individuals of a certain species
    • Organism: animal; individual living thing
    • Organ system: nervous system
    • Organ: brain
    • Tissue: nerve tissue
    • Cell: nerve cell
    • Organelles: nucleus
    • DNA:
  5. Emergent Properties
    "whole is greater than the sum of its parts"

    The new properties that comes up in each step of the hierarchy

    • System Biology
    • Construct models of while systems and study its parts
  6. What are cells
    basic structural and functional units that exhibit properties of life

    All organisms have it
  7. Types of Cells
    • Eukaryotic
    • Prokaryotic

    Both have DNA and plasma membrane

    • Systems
    • Properties of cells life come from the ordered from the ordered arrangement and interactions of structures of a cell
  8. What is Eukaryotic cells
    • Cells that have DNA in the nucleus
    • Plant and animal cells
  9. What are Prokaryotic cells
    No nucleus; simple bacteria cells
  10. Consumers and Decomposers
    • Oragnisms- interact with environment
    • plants- produce food
    • consumers-eat plants/animals
    • take in O2 from air, release CO2 =release energy in food
    • Decomposers- recyclers, change comples matter to simple nurtrients
  11. Flow of Energy
    Plants->photosynthesis->chemical energy->consumers->decomposers

    energy converted to heat when lost from system
  12. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
    • DNA- making proteins
    • common genetic code
    • chemical substance of genes
    •         Double Helix- called 2 nucleotides;    names info in genes
    • Genes- units of inheritance that transmits info from parents to offspring
    • two long chains coiled together
    • control activities of cells
  13. Unity and Diversity of Life
    • Unity of life based on DNA
    • Diversity of all DNA but different coding
    • hallmark of life
  14. Evolution the core theme of Biology
    • accounts for life's dual nature of kinship and diversity
    • i.e -natural selection
    • kinship- suggest animals are related
  15. Diversity of Life
    • Hallmark of life
    • Taxonomy- names species, clasify them into a system of broader groups
    • Genuns->family->order->class->Phylom->Kingdom
  16. What are the Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Plantae-plants
    • Kingdom Fungi-mushrooms, decomposers
    • Kingdom Animals- animals
  17. What are the 3 domains
    • Bacteria-prokaryotes
    • Archaea- prokaryotes
    • Eukarya- salty lakes, eukaryotes-nucles organelles
  18. Process of Science
    • Scientific Inquiry- used to ask and answer questions
    • recording data, making observations, measurements
    • Inductive Reasoning-used ot draw gerneral conclusions from many observations
    • all organisms are composed of cells
    • derives generalizations
    • Ddeuctive Reasoning- test hypothesis
    • i.e organisms->cells , humans->organisms, humans have cells
    • used to come up with ways to hypothesis
    • explanation for observations
    • Theory vs. Hypothesis
    • Scientific Theory- broader than hypothesis, can test multiple hypothesis,
    • lots of data
    • supported by a lot of evidence
    • general
    • Forming and Testing a Hypothesis-Hypothesis must be able to be false
    • falsiable and testable
    • either its true of not
    • when false propose another one
  19. Controlled Experiment
    Comparing controlled group to experimental group

    • controlled-group that does't change
    • used to measure against
    • Experimental-group that has changes
  20. Evolutionary Theory
    Teaches environemnt is powerful selective force for traits best adapt to environment
  21. What is Matter?
    • Anything that occupies space and has mass
    • chemical elements
    • solid, liquid, gas
  22. What is an element
    Substance that cannot be broken down
  23. What are compounds
    • 2 or more elements
    • fixed proportion
    • 96% O C H V 
    •   in human body
    •   is in proteins
    •   important for bone formation
    • i.e NaCl and H2O
  24. What are trace elements?
    • Added to food to prevent disease
    • i.e- Iron- is in cereal and pasta
    •    need for oxygen
    • Iodine-salt
    •    Production of thyroid hormones
    • Fluorine- water
    •    reduce tooth decay

    • Help Preserve food
    • makes it look better
    • more nutrients
  25. What are atoms
    Smallest unit of matter retains properties of an element
  26. What is the structure of an atom
    • Protons- pos. charge demtermine the element
    • Neutrons-no charge determine if its an isotope
    • Electrons- neg. charge
    • determine chemical behavior
  27. What is the atomic number
    • number of protons
    • All atoms of same element have same atomic number
  28. What is the atomic mass or mass numbr
    • Equal to mass number
    • sum of number of protons and neutrons in nucleus
  29. What are isotopes
    • Same number of protons
    • different number of neutron
    • behave identically in chemical reactions

    • Cells cant distinguish between istopes of same element
    • i.e C-12 and C-13
  30. What are radioactive Isotopes
    • nucleues decays spontaneiously
    • give off particles and energy
    • cause abnormal bonds
    • used for treatments
    • Iodine- kills cancer cells
  31. What are radioactive trcers
    used in medical diagnosis

    • follow molecules as they undergo chemical changes
    • imaging instruments used to detect them
    • PET scans-detect location of injected radioactive material
    •    diagnosing heart disorders, cancer
  32. What are Chemical bonds?
    electrons involved in chemical activity- farther electrons from nucleus the more energy it has
  33. What are the chemical properties of atoms?
    • Electrons occur in energy levels
    • It  has different orbitals which holds a max of 2 electrons
    • called electron shells
    • the 1st shell holds 2
    • 2nd holds 8

    • number of electrons on outermost shell determines the chemical properties of atom
    •   Valence shell
  34. What is the octet rule?
    • Atoms with incomplete outermost shell tend to react so both have completed outermost shell
    •   share, donate, recieve elecrons called Chemimcal bonding
  35. What are covalent bonds?
    • Strongest
    • 2 atoms share electrons
    • 2 or more atoms held together by covalent bonding
    •   called a molecule
    • O2- double covalent bond

    electronegativity- attraction for shared electrons
  36. Type of covalent bonds
    • Nonpolar covalent- equal force between atoms
    • i.e methane , O2, H2
    • Polar Covalent- unequal force
    •    more negative atom has stronger force
    •    i.e- H2O
    •      O sronger force
  37. What is an ionic bond
    • Ion- an atom/ molecule with charge
    • loss or gain of electron
    • if loss then postive
    • if gain then negative
    • attraction hold ions together
    •   called ionic bond
    • i.e NaCl
  38. What are hydrogen bond
    • Weakest bond
    • consists of H atom
    • polar covaent bonds
  39. Chemical Reactions
    Structure of atoms and molecules detmerminbes the way they behave

    • break and make chemical bonds
    • doesnt create of destroy matter
    • i.e photsynthesis- carbon dioxide, air and water

    starting material are the reactants and the final material are the products
  40. How does hydrogen bonds give water its properties
    • it makes water cohesive
    •   tendency for molecules of the same kind to stkck together-cohesion
    •   stongest for water
    •    Adhesion- clinging of substances to another
    • Gives water high surface tension
    •    how difficult to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
  41. Water properties
    • Temp-moderation: of humand body temp
    • polarity and hydrogen bonds between molecules determines structure and interactions
    •    intensity of heat
    •    H bonds resist to temp changes
    •    heat energy- associated with movemnt of atoms and moleulces in body of water
    •    Absorbed to break H bonds
    •      released when  H bonds form
    •    Evaportaiting cooling- molevules of greatest energy to leave

    • Ice vs. liquid
    • ice floats on water
    • ice less dense
    • H bonds makes ice more spacious

    • Solute and solvent =solution
    • Solute- substance dissolved
    • solvent- dissolving agent
    • solution- liquid consisting of uniform mixture of 2 or more substnaces
    •   aquesous solution- water is the solvent
    •     disolves ionic compounds
  42. Acids and Bases
    • Acids- release H atoms
    • HCl: more H ions than OH ions
    • donates H atoms

    • Bases- accepts H atoms
    • reduce H atom concentration

    • pH scale- 10 fold change
    • water-pH of 7
    • blood plasma- 7.4
  43. What are organic compounds?
    • Carbon based molecules
    • i.e methane
  44. What are the properties of carbon?
    • Methane: simplest organic compounds
    • 4 covalent bonds CH4

    • Hydrocarbons: molecules of Hydrogens and carbons
    • vary in length
    • difference in branching
  45. How do carbon skeletons differ?
    • Chains pf carbon atoms in organic molecules
    • vary in
    • 1.Length i.e Ethane and Propane
    • 2. Location of double bonds
    • 3. Branching
    • 4.Rings
  46. What are isomers?
    Compounds with same formula differeing in structural arrangement

    • Structural isomers- straight or branched
    • Geometric Isomers-
    • Enantoisomers- mirror image of each other

    different shapes of isomers result in unique properties and add greatly to diversity of organic molecules