anatomy and physiology. exam 1

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  1. Major body cavities
    holes in the body where organs sit
  2. What is in the Dorsal Cavity?
    • (toward the back)
    • cranial cavity-brain
    • spinal canal-spinal cord
  3. What is in the Ventral cavity?
    • (toward the front)
    • Thoracic Cavity-heart and lungs
    • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  4. What is part of the Abdominopelvic Cavity?
    • Abdominal Cavity (upper)- stomach, liver, intestines
    • Pelvic Cavity(lower)- bladder, reproductive
  5. What separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity?
  6. What is anatomy?
    The study of structure and form. Where things are, what they look like, and name
  7. The study of function. How and why things work, is what?
  8. What are the levels of organization? simple to complex...
    • atom
    • molecule
    • organelles
    • cell
    • tissues
    • organs
    • organ system
    • organism
  9. What are the levels of organization? complex to simple...
    • Organism
    • organ system
    • organ
    • tissue
    • cell
    • organelles
    • molecules
    • atom
  10. What is an atom?
    The basic building block of matter
  11. What are the structures in a cell called?
  12. The 1st living level is what?
  13. The collection of 2 or more tissues that have a specific function. are what?
  14. What are organ systems?
    Organs put together to help with certain functions
  15. What is an organism?
    A complete individual
  16. Maintenance of a stable environment is what?
  17. What is a stressor?
    Anything that moves us away from homeostasis
  18. A process through which the body returns to normal level is what?
    Negative Feedback
  19. What are characteristics of Neg. Feedback?
    • have a normal range
    • be able to detect changes in range
    • have a process to negate changes and return to normal
  20. To detect a change and a process occurs that encourages that change even more is what?
    Positive feedback
  21. A fever and labor contractions are examples of what?
    Positive feedback
  22. supine
    palms facing up
  23. prone
    palms facing down
  24. Cytoplasm is the clear fluid in the cell T/F
    False. It is everything that is in the cell (not nucleus)
  25. The clear fluid in the cell (not organelles) is what?
  26. What are elements?
    The simplest form of matter with unique properties. (hydrogen, oxygen)
  27. How many naturally occurring elements are there?
    about 90
  28. how many elements are needed in the body?
  29. The six most common elements in the body are...
    nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, calcium and phosphorus
  30. Atoms consist of 3 what?
    subatomic particles
  31. What are the 3 subatomic particles?
    protons, neutrons, electrons
  32. Protons.
    • in the nucleus.
    • positive charge +
    • 1 AMU
  33. neutrons.
    • in the nucleus. 
    • no charge 0
    • 1 AMU
  34. electrons.
    • outside of nucleus.
    • negative charge -
    • no sig. mass
  35. The atomic # is assigned to an atom based on what?
    How many protons it has.
  36. How do you calculate the atomic mass?
    #protons + #neutrons
  37. An atom has an atomic # of 14 and an atomic mass of 30. How many protons and neutrons?
    • protons- 14
    • neutrons- 16
  38. What is an isotope?
    An atom with an unconventional mass due to having an unconventional # of neutrons.
  39. Electrons are found at specific distances around the nucleus known as what?
    energy levels
  40. How many energy levels are there?
  41. Electrons prefer to be in the lowest energy level possible. T/F?
  42. How many electrons can each level hold?
    • Level 1- 2 electrons
    • Level 2- 8 electrons
    • Level 3- 8 electrons
    • Level 4- 8 electrons
  43. Ions are what?
    Atoms that do not have equal numbers of protons and electrons
  44. What is an ion that have a + charge?
    Cations. Because they have more protons than electrons
  45. What is an ion that has a - charge?
    Anions. Because they have more electrons than protons.
  46. Why do ions occur?
    Because atoms try to be stable.
  47. A stable atom is one that has a full innermost energy level T/F
    False. INNERMOST layer
  48. What are Tissues?
    Groups of cells functioning together
  49. What are the 4 types of tissues?
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscle
    • nervous
  50. What is epithelial tissue?
    Groups of cells that provide a covering to a surface
  51. Simple cells have how many layers?
  52. stratified cells have how many layers?
    2 or more
  53. pseudostratified cells have how many layers?
    1 layer, but cells sometimes weave through each other.
  54. Groups of cells that connect, bind, protect or support are called what?
  55. Muscle tissues are what?
    Groups of cells that cause movement by shortening and lengthening.
  56. What are groups of cells that carry electrical signals?
    Nervous tissue
  57. What is an ionic bond?
    An attractive force that holds + and - atoms together. They both want 8 electrons. If they sit close together, they can share
  58. An attractive force between atoms sharing electrons is called what?
    A Covalent bond
  59. What are electrolytes?
    Compounds that separate into ions when added to water.
  60. Atoms or molecules with an odd number of electrons are called what?
    Free Radicals.
  61. What can damage healthy molecules? *what can cause aging or breaking down of the body slowly*
    free radicals
  62. What are antioxidants?
    molecules capable of neutralizing free radicals
  63. Molecules are 2 or more atoms bonded together T/F
  64. What are organic compounds (macromolecules)
    carbon based compounds necessary for life.
  65. What is a monomer?
    A basic molecular unit used to make larger molecules (polymer)
  66. What is a polymer?
    Series of monomers chained together. (like a train)
  67. What are the 4 major classes of organic compounds?
    Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid
  68. What are carbohydrates composed of?
    oxygen, hydrogen and carbon atoms.
  69. What is the general portion for Carbohydrates?
    1 carbon for every 2 hydrogen for every 1 oxygen

  70. What is the fewest atom proportion of carbs?
  71. What three types of Carbs are there?
    monosacharides,disacharides, and polysacharides
  72. There are 3 monosacharides. What are they?
    • glucose
    • galactose
    • fructose
  73. What is glucose?
    • blood sugar
    • preffered form of sugar in the body
    • used to make energy
  74. Galactose is converted into what?
  75. What is fructose?
    • fruit sugar. 
    • converted into glucose
  76. What are the thee Disacharides?
    • sucrose
    • lactose
    • maltose
  77. What is sucrose?
    • table sugar
    • broken down into glucose
  78. What is lactose?
    • milk sugar
    • broken down into glucose
  79. What is maltose?
    • malt sugar.
    • broken down into glucose
  80. What are the three polysacharides?
    • cellulose
    • starches
    • glycogen
  81. What is cellulose?
    Used by plants for strength and support.
  82. What are starches used for?
    Used by plants to store sugars for energy.
  83. What is glycogen used for?
    • by animals to store extra glucose.
    • stored in the liver and muscles
  84. What are lipids composed of?
    Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
  85. What has lots of carbon and hydrogen atoms and very few oxygen?
  86. are  lipids hydrophobic (don't like water)
  87. Fats and oils are examples of what?
  88. lipids are monomers T/f
    yes. fatty acid
  89. What are fatty acids composed of?
    Long chains of carbons surrounded by hydrogens.
  90. Fatty acids can be saturated, unsaturated. T/F
  91. Saturated fatty acid means what?
    Every carbon in the chain is as full as possible with hydrogen (no double bonds)
  92. Unsaturated fatty acid means what?
    at least 2 carbons are doubly bonded
  93. What are the functions of fatty acids?
    Alone, they can be broken down into energy
  94. Together, 2 or more fatty acids can be used to make other ____?
  95. What are triglycerides?
    Polymer of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
  96. What are triglycerides used for?
    • Store fatty acids
    • build up in adipose tissue
    • insulation, cusion. provide large source of energy
  97. What are phospholipids?
    Polymer of 2 fatty acids attached to a phosphate molecule.
  98. What are phospholipids used for?
    making cellular membranes
  99. What are steroids?
    • rings of carbon and hydrogen plus a few oxygen.
    • cholesterol
    • estrogens
    • testosterone
  100. What is cholesterol used for?
    To make the other steroids. To stabalize plasma membrane
  101. What are hormones?
    Chemical messengers
  102. Estrogens, testosterone and other steroids are used as hormones T/F
  103. What are proteins composed of?
    Carbon, Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen (NOCH)
  104. How many types of amino acids are needed to make all of our protein varieties?
  105. How many amino acids needed to make a polymer called a protein?
  106. What is collagen like?
    tough but flexible
  107. What is keratin like?
    hard and tough
  108. What are the functions of proteins?
    structure, communication, membrane transport, catalysis, protection, movement
  109. What are enzymes?
    Proteins that speed up chemical reactions
  110. What can recognize and inhibit foreign invaders in the blood?
  111. Myasin and actin are what?
    proteins that cause muscles to contract
  112. Nucleic Acids, nucleotides and ATP are composed of what?
    • carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus. 
    • monomer-nucleotide
  113. Nucleic Acids are huge polymers of nucleotides. T/F
  114. examples of nucleic acids are...
    DNA and RNA
  115. What stores information about how to make proteins?
    DNA, RNA
  116. What is adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    • a molecule that has a tremendous amount of energy within it.
    • (cells transfer the energy in carbs and lipids to making ATP molecules for themselves.
  117. How many cells are in the body?
    10 trillion
  118. polygonal cell shape
    many sides
  119. stellate cell shape
  120. spheroid cell shape
  121. discoid cell shape
    flat and circular
  122. fusiform cell shape
  123. fibrous cell shape
    long and thin
  124. What is the function of the plasma membrane?
    • It controls what gets into and out of the cell. 
    • separates intracellular material from outer cellular material
  125. What is the composition of the plasma membrane?
    phospholipids, membrane proteins, cholesterol
  126. What is the function of membrane proteins?
    can help with membrane transport
  127. What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane?
    Makes sure that the phospholipids aren't too rigid or too loose
  128. What are hair like extensions off of the plasma membrane?
  129. What is the function of cilia
    To move material across the cell's surface
  130. What is flagellum?
    Tail-like extension off of a cell
  131. what is the function of flagellum?
    To move the cell through a liquid environment.
  132. microvilli is what?
    tiny folds in the plasma membrane
  133. Why is microvilli important?
    If you lose it, you lose ability to absorb.
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anatomy and physiology. exam 1
2013-02-17 01:47:23
anatomy phys


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