Visual Noise (poor lighting, glare, hand in front of face, food chewing, cigarette, pipe, truning away, gum chewing, mustache beard.
When you whisper...
Articulation is different.
Define speech reading
the process of decoding the visual cues of speech.
WHat are the two speech reading methods and describe each. Also give examples of each
Analytic method: breaking message down in little parts. Drill on sounds. mueller-walle, jena
Synthetic method: pull everything together from all info w/o focusing on little parts. nitchie, and kinzie
Who is the father of lipreading?
What is the more popular method of speech reading today?
What is the classic test of speechreading?
The Utley test,
Not sure of validity due to lack of science.
There are a variety of other tests for speech reading assessment, and some are designed to evaluate _____ rather than ___ skills.
What things must you specify for testing conditions of speech reading?
who is the speaker
acoutsic cues (signal level, noise level, SNR.)
gestures, facial expression
rate of speech
lighting (make sure its good)
what should test administration always include?
Who is a candidate for speechreading instruction?
those persons with substantial disability whom other AR techniques have not been effective.
What are the factors that mean S/R is usually not a priority in an AR program?
limitation of S/R
difficulty learning s/r in a training program
availability of more effective AR techniques.
What are two perceptual strategies in understanding speech? Describe each and give an example.
Figure-ground patterning: Recognizing a stimulus pattern in a background of noise. (focusing in on what you want to focus on in the midst of noise). EX- word search
Closure: Perception of an incomplete stimulus as being complete. Ex- A win__r _orm warn_ng is in e_e_t
____ is important in communication and quality of life.
_____ are often present in clinical populations. Which one?
multiply disordered individuals.
What is acuity?
Ability to resolve visual stimuli.
20/20 vision is a term used to express normal visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision) measured at a distance of 20 ft. if you have 20/20 vision you can see clearly at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance.
What does it mean to have 20/100 vision?
it means that you must be as close as 20 ft to see what a person with normal vision can see at 100 feet.
What is adaptation?
Ability to adjust sensitivity to light.
Describe Retinitis pigmentosa?
Genetic. Occurs in usher syndrome.
What is the most common disorder causing loss of both hearing and vision (may also affect balance)?
With usher syndrom, hl is often _____ and vision loss occurs in ___ to ___.
childhood, late teens
With Usher syndrome, there is a decrease in _____ a loss of ___ and _____.Usually not ______.
peripheral and central vision (in advanced cases)
what is in the future for usher syndrome?
promising research (nature medicine 2013) treating HL in Ushers with RNA injection.
What are the 4 most common age related visual disorders?
Clouding of lens.
usually excessive pressure in eye
group of diseases that cause optic nerve damage
second leading cause of blindness
early treatment can prevent damage
Describe macular degeneration.
Affects central part of retina
Central vision may blur and eventually advance to a central blindspot.
Describe diabetic retinopathy
Damaged blood vessels on retina.
What is the retina?
The light sensitive tissue at back of eye.
In children, visual disorders may be related to ____.
In children, following diagnosis of sensorineural HL (and some conductive HL e.g. craniofacial), what must occur?
Referral to vision specialist
What is deafblindness?
combined hearing loss and visual impairment
Describe the range of impairment, prevalence, etiologies and key qualities of deafblindness.
range of impairment ranges for both hearing and vision.
estimated present in 3/100,000 newborns
rubella, usher's syndrom and other genetic disorders, illness, trauma
often severe communication, learning and mobility problems.
Compare and contrast vision care providers and hearing care providers.
Vision Care Providers:
*Opthalmologist (m.d., surgery)
*Optometrist (O.D., Doctor of optometry, 4 year grad program, some diagnosis and treatment, prescribe some meds)
* Optician (fills lens perscriptions)
* Otologist or otolaryngologist (M.D)
* Hearing and dispenser
What are three types of cues to speech perception?
What are three linguistic constraints?
What are lexical constraints?
Closed set of phonemes and words
What are structural constraints?
rules for stringing together words and phonemes
what are contextual constraints
Topic of conversation, speaker-listener relationship setting.
What is redundancy?
The part of the message that can be lost without significant loss of information *both auditory and visually*
What is the communication model
Speaker ----- encoding and monitoring speech-----message
Research studies provide...
selected pieces of information regarding paterns of language performance.
HI persons are a very __________ and any individual may fit the _____.
language is extremely ___
Normal acquisition is through_____
everyday exposure 24/7
HL prevents or reduces?
Earlier onset & more sever HL =
HL can cause both ___ and ____
language disorder and delay
HL can produce profound _____
Profound language deficit can result in profound impact on:
Social and emotional relationships
Describe the 7 characteristics of vocabulary related to hl.
related to age of onset of HL
Related to degree of HL
Significantly smaller vocabulary
Gap between HL and normals widens as age increases
Islands of deficit (certain situations kids w/ HL are not exposed to)
Poor understanding of idioms, puns, multiple meanings and subtle differences
Poor understanding of function words (conjunctions, prepositions, compared to semantic words (nouns))
Describe syntax as it relates to hl
Related to degree of HL
Use shorter sentences
Use simpler sentences
Poor understanding of complex sentences
poor understanding of passive voice
errors difficult to overcome
Describe morphology as it is related to hl
certain morphemes are in audible (especially s and z)
What percentage of deaf children are of normal hearing parents ?
_____ have better language skills than_____ due to ______.
Deaf kids from deaf parents
those with normal hearing parents
consistent language exposure.
*before cochlear implants.
Describe the speech characteristics of the HI?
Acoustic input is critical for development of speech.
-hearing self (cannot self monitor)
Describe the babble behavior in deaf infants.
Start to babble like normal (throws parents off)
Difference is that babble does not progress and may regress.
Describe the speech characteristics of mile/moderate HL
Normal voice quality
Normal vowel articulation
Some consonant misarticulating (final consonants and fricatives
*Speech is pretty normal*
Describe the speech characteristics of profound HL
poor coordination of breathing and speech
flat intonation contour --- monotone
high pitch voice (putting in more effort)
hypernasal (they can hear nasals better)
articulation errors for both vowels and consonants
poor control of pitch and loudness
poor differentiation of vowels
omission of consonants
poor rhythm of speech
The first management procedure is ? Describe the process of the first class
Speech reading instruction:
make session interesting
group is hard to facilitate
introduce clients to each other
determine client occupations, interests
explain the audiogram and typical high-freq. hearing loss
Talk briefly about hearing aid
discuss the communication model (don't get to academic)
Prepare and distribute handouts
Administer a hearing handicap scale; situational, psychosocial
Briefly demonstrate the process of speech reading
Give homework: over the time period until the next session, list situations in which it is especially difficult for you to hear clearly.
Describe the second class
s/r pre test
discuss pretest results
briefly discuss visibility of speech sounds
present most recognizable visemes
S/R exercises -- for example, QRE (quick recognition exercise)
Homework: watch and analyze three different news casters without sound.
Describe the 3rd class of speech reading
S/R post tests.
Describe the QRE
Write 3 words up on board (pitch, fish, rich) that look different
1) Say words and they listen
2) Say it and point
3) Say them with you
4) you say it and they repeat it.
What is meant by environmental control?
-A management procedure
Manipulate environment to perceive better cues
get in position for auditor and visual cues
*Don't talk down to them*
achieve proper lighting
assert yourself (not aggressive)
Sign language is used for what type of hearing loss?
what are the 3 components of manual communication
gestures, fingerspelling, signs
what is iconic?
look like what they signify
What are the sign features?
Know the sign language interpretation symbol.
Describe american sign language
asl or ameslan
a non-English lanuage
The language of the deaf community
No written form (ie text for everyday reading)
Describe manual english
english language in signs
a sign for every pronoun, prefix, suffix, etc.
many signs the same as asl
used predominantly only in educational setting (used in schools to teach english)
Compare SEE I, SEE II, signed english
SEE I: seeing essential english (early 1970's)
SEE II: Signing exact english
Signed english: developed at gallaudet university
What is LOVE
Linguistics of visual english
used to fascilitate communication between haring ad hearing impaired individuals.
registry of interpreters for the deaf
certificate of interpretation
between asl and spoken english
Certificate of transliteration?
between signed english and spoken english
What are the rules for hearing people using an interpretor
Talk directly to HI person
Don't ask for interpretation of just part of message
Furnish interpretor with technical vocabulary ahead of time
Be prepared to slow speech
only one person should talk at a time.
Describe the interpreter position.
1:1 conversation behind HI person
Classroom - near instructor
slide/video presentation near presenter
What is the association connected with tinnitus
american tinitus association
When a client has tinnitus you should...
referral to ENT physician or an audiologist who specialized in tinnitus.
what are the common treatments for tinnitus
Hearing aids (won't hear tinnitus)
simple maskers (radio)
Tinnitus retraining therapy
Diet (less caffine)
What is residual inhibition?
goes with tinnitus masker
absence of tinnitus for a short time after masking is removed (in HA too)
Describe tinnitus retraining therapy?
good and bad reports
relaxation tech using electrodes
Amplification is the _______.
Best treatment for hearing loss
What are the amplification and other electronc devices
assistive listening devices
What is the goal of amplification?
intensify speech sounds that are inaudible.
Who is responsible for ensuring safety and effectiveness of hearing aids?
The food and drug administration
what are the 4 basic components of a hearing aid?
1) Microphone(changes sound to electricity)
2) Amplifier (increases magnitude of electrical signal)
3) receiver (changes electrical signal back to sound)