Level I W2013

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Author:
amelia.m.norton
ID:
201055
Filename:
Level I W2013
Updated:
2013-02-16 21:14:46
Tags:
Cancer
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Description:
Cancer, Level I
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  1. Cancer
    abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and in some cases metastasize
  2. Oncology
    • field of medicine devoted to cancer
    • medical
    • surgical
    • radiation
  3. Tumor
    lump, mass, swelling
  4. Neoplasm
    • new formation
    • abnormal mass of tissue in which growth exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissue
  5. Development of Cancer
    • chemical
    • environmental
    • genetic
    • immunologic
    • viral
    • spontaneous in origin
  6. Carcinogen
    cancer causing
  7. Heritable trait of cancerous cells
    • Autonomy: independence from normal cellular controls
    • Anaplasia: lose differentiation of function & shape
  8. Benign Neoplasm
    • well differentiated
    • encapsulated
    • expansive mode of growth
    • characteristics similar to parent cell
  9. Malignant neoplasm
    • able to metastasize
    • infiltrative & expansive
    • frequent recurrence
    • moderate to marked vascularity
    • makes own growth factor
    • angiogenic: develops own blood supply
    • telomeres immortal
  10. Metastasis
    • -to spread
    • Direct: self seeding
    • Lymphatic: distant seeding
    • Bloodstream: distant seeding
    • Transplantation: transfer of cells from one site to another
  11. Carcinogen factors
    • environmental factors 80-90% including chemicals, diet, industrial pollution, medical treatments
    • Immunological defeccts
    • radiation: uv, nuclear, x-ray
    • Oncogenic: HPV
    • Contributing factors: age, sex, race, genetic predisposition, envrionmental exposure levels, behavioral habits, occupation
    • STRESS-PSYCHOLOGICAL
  12. Prevention & Detection
    • educate pt on risks, explore their risk factors
    • self-exams
    • seek medical care
  13. 7 warning signs
    • Change in bowel/bladder
    • Any sore that doesn't heal
    • Unusual bleeding/discharge
    • Thickening in breast/elsewhere
    • Indegestion
    • Obvious change in skin, wart, mole
    • Nagging cough or hoarseness
  14. Histologic Analysis
    • Grade1-4
    • 1: cells differ slightly from normal cells & are well differentiated
    • 2: cells more abnormal & mod differ
    • 3: Cells very abnormal & poorly differ
    • 4: Cells immature/primitive & undiffer; cell of origin difficult to determine
  15. Clinical Staging
    • Stage 0-4
    • 0: in situ
    • 1: tumor limited to tissue of origin
    • 2: limited local spread
    • 3: extensive local & regional spread
    • 4: metastasis
  16. Collaborative Care
    • curative: therapy may involve surgery or extended systemic therapy
    • control: initial course & maintenance therapy
    • Palliation: relief or control of symptoms & maintenance of quality of life
  17. Surgery for cancer
    • preventative- prophylactic: removal of tissue
    • diagnostic: for definitive diagnosis
    • curative: primary trtmt mode for localized tumor
    • reconstructive: restore function or improve quality of life
    • palliative: improve quality of life
  18. Nursing implications, internal radiation
    • maintain bed rest when source in place
    • communicate from distance
    • stand opposite radiation source
    • max exposure 30min/shift
    • do not touch implant
  19. common chemotherapy SE
    • anemia
    • infection d/t low WBC
    • N/V
    • pain
    • alopecia
    • depression/emotional stress
    • stomatitis: sores in mouth
  20. Nursing Diagnosis
    • risk for infection
    • acute/chronic pain
    • imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements
    • fatigue
    • impaired oral mucus membranes
    • impaired skin integrity
    • grieving
    • psychological support
  21. Myelosuppression
    • decreased RBC, WBC, platelets
    • neutropenia
    • thrombocytopenia
    • anemia
    • Nadir

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