Anatomy week 6

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Anatomy week 6
2013-02-17 00:53:19

week 6
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  1. hormones:
    control cell growth, keeps everything in balance
  2. negative feedback loop:
  3. hypothalamus:
     controlling the pituitary gland
  4. anterior pituitary gland:
     supplies growth hormone
  5. growth hormone:
    controls the growth of the body
  6. thyroid-
    stimulating hormone: stimulates the thyroid
  7. adrenocorticotropic hormone:
    stimulated adrenal cortex
  8. melanocyte-stimulating hormone:
    stimulates melanocytes
  9. follicle-stimulating hormone: 
     stimulates ovarian/ sperm production
  10. luteinizing hormone:
    females stimulates ovulation, progesterone/ malestestosterone
  11. lactogenic hormone:
    stimulates milk production in women
  12. posterior pituitary gland:
      produces ADH, to make kidneys reabsorb water
  13. antidiuretic hormone:
    also called ADH, increases water reabsorption in kidneys
  14. oxytocin:
     contraction of uterine smooth muscles/ contraction of mammary glands/
  15. thyroid gland:
    located in the neck, requires iodine
  16. thyroxine:
     increases metabolism
  17. triiodothyronine:
  18. calcitonin:
     regulation of calcium and phosphate concentration
  19. parathyroid:
     located in the posterior thyroid gland
  20. parathormone:
    PTH stimulates bone cell release of calcium
  21. adrenal glands:
     located on top of each kidney, produces epinephrine, and norepinephrine
  22. pancreas:
    populated by islets of langerhans
  23. hypoglycemia:
     low blood sugar
  24. hyperglycemia:
     high blood sugar
  25. diabetes mellitus:
     insufficient insulin production
  26. thymus gland:
    right behind the sternum, secrets thymosin, aids in T cell production
  27. pineal gland:
    located in the brain near the thalamus
  28. melatonin:
     inhibits reproductive functions, and regulates body functions
  29. serotonin:
    neurotransmitter stimulates smooth muscle contractions
  30. ovaries:
    produces estrogen and progesterone
  31. estrogen:
     development of reproductive system in females
  32. progesterone:
    development of female sexual characteristics
  33. testes:
  34. testosterone:
    development of sex cladistics
  35. blood
    is specialized connective tissue, transports O2, CO2,  nutrients, waste, hormones
  36. plasma
    55% of blood
  37. regulates:
    body pH, body temperature
  38. clots:
    the clotting mechanism is the “self-repair” of damage to the circulatory system, Protection against foreign microbes and toxins
  39. Erythrocytes:
    (RBCs) = red blood cells 95% of the volume of blood cells
  40. Leukocytes:
     (WBCs) = white blood cells Granular: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
  41. Agranular:
    monocytes, lymphocytes
  42. thrombocytes:
  43. composition of plasma:
    Fluid portion of blood is 91% water Plasma proteins: 7% Ions (K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca++, etc), nutrients (glucose), waste products (nitrogen-based), gases, enzymes, hormones
  44. hematopoiesis:
     Production of red blood cells in red bone marrow
  45. erythrocyte specifics:
     red blood cells (RBC’s) Biconcave disks, No nucleus, so they have no DNA
  46. leukocytes specifics:
     (white blood cells) Neutrophils, Phagocytize (surround and digest) foreign substances
  47. thrombocyte specifics:
    (aka platelets) Disk-shaped cellular fragments with a nucleus