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Classical Viewpoint of Management
Emphasized finding ways to manage work more EFFICIENTLY.
- Has two Branches
- 1. Scientific Management
- 2. Administrative Management
The scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.
"Father of Scientific Management"
- Believed in applying four principles of science:
- 1. Evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task (*Motion Studies)
- 2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task.
- 3. Give workers training and incentives to complete the task. (*Differential Rate System)
- 4. Use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs.
Frederick Taylor's Impact on Management
Positive- Increases productivity of workers, which could increase profits and benefit both management and employees.
Negative- Could reduce the number of employees need because of improved efficiency.
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Scientific Management (*Lillian first woman to be a major contributor to managment science)
* Used movie cameras to film workers at work in order to isolate the parts of a job
**This expanded on Taylor's Motion Studies
Managing the total organization as a whole.
Identified the Four Functions of Management (Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling)
Believed Bureaucracy has positive benefits:
- 1. Well defined hiearchy of authority
- 2. Formal rules and procedures
- 3. A clear division of labor
- 4. Impersonality
- 5. Careers based on merit.
Why is the classical viewpoint of management important?
By applying scientific methods (motion studies & job specialization) managers were able to boost productivity.
By applying administrative methods, managers are able to identify major functions and define structure, roles and procedures to improve organizational performance.
Classical Viewpoint Flaws
- Too mechanistic
- Viewed humans as machines
- Did not account for human needs