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Levels of body defense
- Barrier Defenses
- Cellular Defenses
- Inflammatory Response
- Immune Response
Name your bodies barrier defenses:
- Mucous Membranes
- Gastric Acid
- Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
Which barrier defense protects internal tissues and organs of the body?
Describe where Mucous membranes would be found:
- Respiratory Tract
- Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)
- Genitourinary Tract (GU)
Lines areas of the body that may be exposed to external influences, but not have skin on them.
Describe the MHC:
Major Histocompatibility complex is the last barrier defense.
Distinguishes between self-cells and foreign or non-self cells.
Produces proteins (histocompatibility antigens) or Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA's)
Name a type of Cellular Defense:
Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS)
Thymus gland, lymphatic tissue , leukocytes, lymphocytes, and chemical mediators are all part of what defense system?
Cellular defenses = MPS
mononuclear phagocyte system
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
What are lymphocytes?
white blood cells, with varied nuclei
T or B Cells
Where are Myelocytic cells made?
Name 4 mylocytic cell types:
- Monocytes / macrophages
engulf/digest foreign material by phagocytosis.
Most common white blood cell
What do Eosinophils do?
often found at the site of an allergic reation
release chemical mediators (histamine / heprin)
Describe Monocytes/ macrophages:
- Eat up dead tissue or cell debris
- Process antigens marked for destruction
- May circulate or be fixed
- Ellicite a strong inflammatory response
Lymphoid tissues include:
- Lymph nodes
- Thymus gland
- Bone Marrow
- Lymphoid tissue in the Respiratory & GI tract
Hagaman factor is what type of response?
What does Hagaman Factor do?
Activates Kinin system / clotting cascade / plasminogen system (dissolves clots)
Brakykinin is triggered by what?
What does Brakykinin cause or trigger next?
Release of Arachidone Acid from the cell membrane
What responses do Arachidonic Acid cause?
- The release of Autacoids :
What do prostaglandins do?
Cause more inflammation
What are Leukotrienes responsible for?
Vasodilation, increase capillary permeability
What do Thromboxanes do?
Vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, and blood coagulation
Composed of leukocytes, lymphocytes, lymphoid tissues and chemical mediators, the _______ system is refer to as the human inflammatory and immune system
Mononuclear Phagocyte System
A foreign pathogen that gets past the barrier defenses will encounter what system?
Mononuclear phagocyte system
Produced in the bone marrow - includes neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, and monocytes :
____ utilizes phagocytosis to destroy foreign material;' refereed to phagocytes.
___ responds when and injury to cell membrane causes release of histamine, leads to vasodilation and altered capillary permeability. Stimulates pain perception.
____ is responsible for activating the Kinen, clotting, and plasminogen systems.
____ causes local vasodialtion, pain stimulus, and the release of arachidonic acid.
Prostaglandin's, Leukotrienes, and Thromboxanes are activated by the release of what?
- (act like local hormones)
These are mast cells that do not circulate and are found in the respiratory, GI and skin:
These provide cell mediated immunity and include 3 different types (effector cells, helper, and suppressor):
These cells are programmed to ID protiens or antigens AND provide humoral immunity:
These take several days to occur along with memory cells to use in future encounters with an antigen
Interferons and Interleukins are considered _______ mediators of the immune response .
_____ has antipyretic and analgesic properties as well as decreases platelet aggregation - this all occurs by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins.
___________ blocks the release of histamine in the initiation of the inflammatory response.
____ is a DMARDs used to treat arthritis (blocks interleukin-1).
what is the prototype for Saliclates?
___ provides strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects over the counter - examples include ibuprofen/ naproxen.
NSAIDs stands for what?
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
___ is the alternative to salicylate/NSAID prototype:
what is the most used drug for managing pain and fever in children?
blocks the inflammatory response and immune system by altering the chemical reaction:
What would a contraindication be for salicylates?
abnormal bleeding or impaired renal function
acts directly on the thermoregulatory cells in the hypothalamus:
Name a cox two inhibitor:
Corticosteroids, antihistamines, salicylates and NSAIDs are all what ?
antidote to acetaminophen is?
Ibuprofen is the prototype drug for what?
Adverse effects of salicylates:
GI irritation, Clotting system, eighth cranial nerve stimulation, and salicylism (tinnitus, acidosis)
Indications for ASAIDs:
Relieves of arthritis pain, dysmenorrhea (menstruation pains), fever
Give the pharmacokinetics of salicylates:
absorbed in stomach, peaks in 5-30 minutes, metabolized in liver, excreted in urine
Pharmacokinetics of Acetaminophen:
absorbed in GI tract, peaks in 1/2 to 2 hours, metabolized in liver, excreted in urine - half life 2 hours.
contraindications of salicylates:
bleeding abnormally or impaired renal function
Contraindications of ASAIDs:
- cardiovascular disfunction
- Peptic ulcer
- GI bleeding
- Caution with renal/hepatic dysfunction
Causes sedation, hypnosis, anesthesia, coma.
Less effective, High risk of addiction
CNS, cerebral cortex depressant.
Treatment of insomnia:
Ambien is a _____ drug.
anxiolytic / hypnotic
______ calm and provide an unawareness of he environment.
anixiolytics cause what?
prevent feelings of tension or fear
Anxiety disorders, sedation, alcohol withdrawal, agitation, pre-op anxiety.
Most frequently used anxiolytic drugs:
bezodiazepines - prevent anxiety without causing much associated sedation.
Drug interactions for benzodiazephine:
Increase when used with alcohol, tagament, oral contraceptives, antabuse.
Decrease with theophylline, zantac
Most frequently prescribed sedative-hypnotic -
controlled substance IV; acts on limbic to make GABA more effective:
Anxiety, sedation, insomnia, pre-anesthesia, and seizures are all indications for what?
Somnolence, confusion, coma, rare hypotension and respiratory depression are a sign of ______ and can be treated with______.
- Benzodiazepine overdose
- treat with Romozicon
Adverse effects of barbituates?
CNS depression, drowsiness, lethargy, vertigo, Reduced REM sleep (agitation, inability to deal with stress)
Contraindications of barbituates?
- Addiction history
- Porphyria (accumulation of body chemicals)
- Hepatic impairment
- Respiratory dysfuntion
Produces a state of tranquillity:
Well absorbed, peaks in 20-60 minutes, metabolized in liver, excreted in urine
- Absorbed in GI
- peaks in 30 minutes - 2 hours
- crosses placenta/ breast milk
- lipid soluble
- metabolized in liver
- excreted in urine
Preoperative medication __________.
Postoperative medication to decrease narcotic need _____________.
Sedation, depression,, blurred vision, constipation, N/V, hypotension, urinary retention:
Benzodiazepine adverse effects
This part of the brain controls crude movements, such as unconsciously controlled muscle activity like BALANCE:
Extrapyramidal Tract Control
What does Baclofen do?
used to alleviate s/s of spasticity - may be used with Spinal cord injuries or diseases
Name a central acting skeletal muscle relaxant: