Circulatory System

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Circulatory System
2013-03-03 19:48:00

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  1. What are the four functions of the circulatory system
    • transportation
    • homeostasis
    • restricts fluid loss
    • fights pathogens
  2. what function of the circulatory system carries oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and all the tissues of the body
  3. what function of the circulatory system carries nutrients from the digestive system and storage areas to all the tissue of the body
  4. what function of the circulatory system carries wastes to the liver and kidneys for detoxification or removal
  5. what function of the ciruclatory system carries hormones from endocrine glands to target muscles
  6. what function of the circulatory system regulates temp by moving heat from skeletal muscles to the superficial blood vessels
  7. what function of the circulatory system transfer water and electrolytes to and from tissues to stabilize their balance
  8. what function of the circulatory system stabilizes pH with buffers
  9. what function of the circulatory system has platelets, enzymes and factors that initiate clotting
  10. what function of the circulatory system has white blood cells and antibodies found in blood that locate and destroy pathogenic organisms
    fights pathogens
  11. what are the two main components of blood
    • plasma-liquid
    • formed elements-cells
  12. what does blood consist of
    • white blood cells
    • red blood cells
    • plamsa
    • platelets
  13. how many liters of blood does an average adult carry
    5-6 liters
  14. what is the pH of an average adults blood
  15. what 3 things make up plasma
    • plasma protein
    • other solutes
    • water
  16. how much blood is plasma
  17. how much blood is formed elements
  18. what are the 3 types of plasma proteins
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
  19. what type of plasma protein is a major contributor to osmotic concentration of plasma and transports lipids and steroid hormones
  20. what type of plasma protein transports ions, hormones, lipids, and helps the immune function
  21. what type of plasma protein is an essential componenet of the clotting system and can be converted to insoluble fibrin
  22. what are the other solutes that make up plasma
    • electrolytes
    • organic nutrients
    • organic waste
  23. what are the ions of electorlytes
    sodium, potassium, and cloride
  24. what are the examples of organic nutrients
    • fatty acids
    • glucose
    • amiono acids
  25. what type of other solute is carried to sites of breakdown or excretion
    organic waste
  26. what are examples of organic waste
    • urea
    • billirubin
  27. what are 3 things that make up formed elements
    • platelets
    • white blood cells
    • red blood cells
  28. what is the producing of formed elements called
  29. what does hemopoiesis primarily occur in adults
    myeloid tissue
  30. where is myeloid tissue found
    bone marrow
  31. what cells are made from myeloid tissue
    • red blood cells
    • platelets
    • eosinophils
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
  32. besides myeloid tissue, where else does hemopoiesis occur
    lympathic tissue
  33. what is lymphatic tissue found
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus gland
    • spleen
  34. what cells are made from lymphatic tissue
    • lympocytes
    • monocytes
  35. wht is the functino of red blood cells
    • carry oxygen to from lungs to tissues
    • carry carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs
  36. how much do red blood cells make up of formed element volume
  37. what shape are red blood cells
    biconcave discs, with a flexible smi permeable membrane
  38. do red blood cells contain important organelles
  39. what type does oxygen bind to
  40. what is the lifespan of red blood cells
    120 days
  41. how are red blood cells destroyed
    • hemolize(wear out)
    • devoured by phagocytes
  42. what happens if red blood cells are phagocytized
    iron ion in the hemoglobin molecule will be recycled and cell remnants are eliminated via urine
  43. what are molecules found on the surface of cell membranes that can be detected by the body's immune system
  44. what do antibodies cause by holding onto the antigens of serveral red blood cells
  45. how many bonding sites do anti-A and anti-B have
  46. what are the antigens located on the red blood cells called
  47. what are the 3 agglutinogens that are significant for determining blood type
    A, B, and D
  48. what types of agglutinogens can parents pass to their offspring
    a, b, or o
  49. what are antibodies found in the plasma of blood that attack agglutinogens of foregin red blood cells
  50. what percents of the u.s. has type o blood
  51. what percent of the u.s. has tpe ab
  52. what percent of us. has type a blood
  53. what percent of u.s. has type b blood
  54. what percent of the u.s. has type Rh blood
  55. what is a hormone released by the kidenys when oxygen levels are low
  56. what hormone stimluates bone marrow to produce more red blood cells which are the transporters of oxygen
  57. what type of cells defend body from pathogens and help remove toxisn, waste, turmor cells, and abnormal, damaged, or dead cells
    white blood cells
  58. do white blood cells have organelles
  59. where can white blood cells be found
    • stored
    • circulation
    • tissues
  60. where are white blood cells stored
    • bone marrow- b cells
    • thymus- t cells
  61. where are white blood cells in circulation
    upon infection
  62. what is the amoeboid movement of white blood that allow it to change shape and enter infected tissues called
  63. what is the chemical attration of white blood cells to foregin materials and dead cells for phaocytosis
  64. what are the 5 types of leukocytes
    • neutrohpil
    • eosinophil
    • basophil
    • monocytes
    • lymphocytes
  65. what type of leukocyte is phagocytic and engulfs pathogens and damaged cells
  66. what types of leukocyte releases cytotoxic enzymes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
  67. what type of leukocyte releases chemcials to signal other WBC'S
  68. what type fo leukocyte is phagocytic and engulfs antibody labeled materials
  69. what type of leukocyte promotes inflammation
  70. what type of leukocyte enters damaged tissue, releases histamine with promotes inflammtion and heparin which prevents clotting
  71. what type of leukocyte releases cytotoxic enzymes in response to parasitic worm infection
  72. what type of leukocyte is a macrophage
  73. what type of leukocyte provides defense agaisnt specific pathogens/ toxins
  74. what percent of wbcs are neutrophils
  75. what percent of wbcs are basophils
    less then 1
  76. what percent of wbcs are lymphocytes
  77. what are the hormones released by monocytes to stimulate bone marrow to make more wbcs
    colony stimulating factors
  78. what cells function in clotting blood and also cease clotting when vessel is mended
    platelets/ thrombocytes
  79. how are platlets made
    by red bone marrow
  80. what is the life expentancy of platelets
    less then 10 days
  81. what aren't platelets considered to be a cell
    lack a nucleus, organelles and is considered a cell fragment
  82. what percent of plasma is water
  83. besides water, what else makes up plasma
    nutrients, dissolved gases, hormones, ions/electrolytes, and waste, and plasma proteins
  84. what are the 3 types of plasma proteins
    • albumins
    • globulins
    • fibrinogen
  85. what plasma protein is responsible for blood viscosity, osmotic pressure
  86. what plasma protein transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, and thyroid hormone
  87. which plasma protein transports hemoglobin, copper, lipids, fat soluable vitamins, hormones, and iron
  88. which plasma protein promotes blood clotting
  89. which plasma protein aids in the destruction of toxins and microorganisms
  90. which plasma protein is also callled immunoglobins/anitibodies and fight pathogens
  91. which plasma protein functions in the clotting of blood at an injury site
  92. which plasma protein is the most common
  93. which plasma protein is the least common
  94. what is the blood plasma with the clotting agents removed called
  95. what are the 2 upper chambers of the heart that receive blood
  96. which atrium receives deoxygenated blood
    right atrium
  97. which atrium receives oxygenated blood
    left atrium
  98. what are the two lower chambers that pump blood away from the heart
  99. what is the cardiac muscle that divides the heart into right and left halves (interatrial and interventricular)
  100. what prevents the back flow of blood between the ventricle and atria
    atrioventricular valves
  101. what prevents blood from reentering the heart once the ventricles have pumped it away
    semilunar valves
  102. which semilunar valve is located betweeen the right ventrical and pulmonary artery
  103. which semilunar valve is located between the left ventricle and aorta artery
  104. what are the 3 layers of the heart wall
    • epicardium
    • mycardium
    • endocardium
  105. which layer of the heart wall is the visceral pericardius, and the serious membrane that attaches to the myocardium
  106. which layer of the heart wall is the muscular wall of the heart , forms both artria and ventricles
  107. which layer of the heart is cardiac muscle embedded with blood vessels, nerves and connective tissues
  108. which layer of the heart is squamous epithelium lining the inner surface of the heart chambers and its valves
  109. what type of blood vessels is large, and carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, and has thick wall for high blood pressure
  110. what type of blood vessel are smaller than arteries and carry blood away from the heart and toward tissue capillaries
  111. arteriole
  112. what type of blood vessles that are only one cell thick which allows for diffusion of intracellular and extracellular substances
  113. what type of blood vessels are small and carry deoxygenated blood from the capiillary beds towards veins
  114. venule
  115. what type of blood vessel are large and carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart and has a large lumen and valves to prevent back flow
  116. what are the 3 types of circulatory routes
    • systematic
    • pulmonary
    • coronary
  117. which type of circulatory route is the movement of blood from the left ventricle to the right artia
  118. which type of circulatory route is the movement of blood from the right atria through the lungs and back to the left ventricle
  119. which type of circulatory route is the movement of blood from the aorta through the coronary arteries and veins of the eart and back to the inferior vena cava vein
  120. what is the extension of the umbilical vein that will take blood past the liver and into the inferior vena cava
    ductus venosus
  121. what shunts blood from the right atrium directly to the left atrium and closes at birth
    foramen ovale
  122. what diverts blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta and closes at birth
    ductus arteriosus
  123. what is the heart conduction pathway
    sinoatrail node to atriventricular node to bundle of his to purkinje fibers
  124. what records the electrical activites of the heart
    electrocardiogram- ECG, EKG
  125. what is the deflection caused by atrial depolarization impulse which leads to atrial contraction calledq
    p wave
  126. what is the ventricular depolarization/impulse that leads to ventricular contraction
    qrs complex
  127. what is atrial repolarization not seen on an EKG
    its masked by ventricular depolarization occuring simultaneously
  128. what is the deflection caused by ventricular repolarization
    t wave
  129. what is the time between the beginning or atrial depolarization and the beginning of ventricular depolarization
    p-q interval
  130. what is the time for singular ventricular depolarization- repolarization cycle
    q-t interval
  131. what is the period between the start one one heartbeat and the beginning of the next called
     cardiac cycle
  132. how long does one cardiac cycle/ heart beat take
    .8 secs
  133. what is the volume of blood ejected from the ventricles during each beat, 70 ml called
    stroke volume
  134. what is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute, 5L
    cardiac output
  135. what is the amount of pressure that blood is exerting on blood vessels and is higher in arteries then veins
    blood pressure
  136. what is the blood pressure during ventricular contraction
  137. what is the blood pressure during ventricular relaxation called
  138. what is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures, the measurement of an artery expanding and then recoiling called
  139. what does pulse detect
    • heart rate
    • strength
    • rhythmicity
  140. what is the force that blood exerts agaisnt the inners walls of blood vessels
    blood pressure
  141. what is the max pressure during ventricular contraction called
  142. what is the lowest pressure that remains in the arteries before the next ventricular contraction
    diastolic pressure
  143. what is an instrument used to amplify sound
  144. what is an instrument used to measure blood pressure
  145. what disease is the conditions in which oxygen carrying capactiy of blood is reduced due to low hemoglobin count
  146. what disease is a bulge in a weakened wall of a blood vessle, usually an artery
  147. what disease is a type of arteriosclerosis characterized by changes in vessles lining and the formation of a plaque
  148. what disease is a slower heart rate than normal
  149. what disease is a faster than normal heart rate
  150. what disease is the abnormal patterns of cardiac electrical activity
    cardiac arrhythmia
  151. what disease is the pericardial inflammation in which fluid collects in the pericardial sac restricting cardiac output
    cardiac tamponade
  152. what disease is a group of disease characterized by the progressive, irreversible degeneration of myocardium
  153. what disease is the analysis of blood yielding: rbc, wbc, and platelet count, hemoglobin and hemtaocrit
    complete blood count
  154. what disease is the condition that develops when the left ventricle can no longer keep pace the right ventricle and blood backs up into the pulmonary circuit, leading to pulmonary edema
    congestive heart failure
  155. what disease is the failure to deliver sufficient oxygen to body tissues
    circulatory shock
  156. what disease is the result of any type of heart failure, including myocardial infarctions and heart infections
    cardiogenic shock
  157. what disease is due to a loss of blood volume in blood vessels
    hypovolemic/hemorragic shock
  158. what disease is the dilation of blood vessels due to involuntary nerve stimulation of vessels
    neurogenic shock
  159. what disease is an acute allergic reaction resulting in vessel dialation
    anaphylatic shock
  160. what disease results from pathogens releasing toxins into the blood stream, causing blood vesssles to dialate
    septic shock
  161. what is a device used to eliminate fibrillation and restore normal caridac rhythm
  162. what is the volume percent of rbcs in whole blood
  163. what is the ultrasound analysis of the heart and the blood flow through major vessels
  164. what is a reaction of a mothers Rh antibodies against a fetus Rh + rbcs causing agglutination
    erythroblastosis fetalis
  165. what is the rapid, uncontrolled, and uncoordinated spasms of heartr walls, atrial or ventricular
  166. what disease is a condition affecting normal heart rhythm; characterized by imparied communication between the SA and AV node and the ventricular myocardium resulting from damage to conduction pathways caused by mechanical distortion, ischemia, infection or inflammation
    heart block
  167. what disease is the inherited disorder characterized by inadequate production of clotting factors
  168. what disease is the abnormally high blood pressure
  169. what disease is blood pressure that is too low
  170. what disease is low tissue oxygen levels
  171. what disease are cancers of the red bone marrow in which abnoraml production of one or more white blood cells
  172. what disease  occurs when mitral valve cusps don't close properly caused by papillary muscle malfunciton or chordea tendinae being to long or to short
    mitral valve prolaspe
  173. what is a black flow of blood called
  174. what type of disease infects b lymphocytes by the epstein virus
  175. what type of disease alters lymphocytes which then are attacked by other wbc's causing fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes
  176. what disease has prolonged heart attacks due to blood flow to the heart and causes cell death
    myocardial infarction
  177. what disease is the inflammation of a vein
  178. what disease is when heart valves become thickened and stiffen into a partially closed position
    rheumatic heart disease
  179. what is a metal, mesh tube insereted into a vessel to hold it open called
  180. what is a blood clot called
  181. what is it called when a drifting blood clot lodges in a blood vessel, blocking circulation