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The organizing framework.
Implied world of the story, including setting, characters, sounds and events.
(or extra-diegetic) elements that exist outside of the diegesis, including, credits, and film music.
Extreme Long Shot (XLS)
The human subject is very small in relation to surrounding environment.
Ininterrupted shots of more than a minute. Build dramatic tension, emphasize continuity of time & space.
presentation of facts, real world events.
(also called Natural Light) the process of using sunlight rather than artificial studio lights.
opening scenes of a film.
a set of fact that surround a particular event of situation.
absorb certain wavelengths but leave others unaffected. Black and white film - color filters control contrast. Color film - produce a range of effects.
Low Angle Shots
position the camera below the subject, aiming upward. exaggerated the size and volume of the subject. characters appear more powerful.
- (sometimes called long lenses) 75-1000mm. compress distance between objects at different distances from the lens.
- distance between foreground and background appears to be less than it actually is.
- appear to slow down motion toward camera.
- inhibit convergence of parallel lines, so they will appear not to curve.
Point of View Shots
- occurs when audience shares visual perspective of character or group of characters.
- used to align audience with character.
widescreen aspect ratio. currently movie theaters project their films in this ratio.
- have a variable focal length. Zooming changes the size of filmed subjects without changing distance between camera and subject.
- Zooming in magnifies the subject = telephoto.
- Zooming out makes the subject appear smaller = wide angle.
(or pre-fogging) doing this to the negative desatures color. Before, during or after shooting, the film stock is exposed to a small amount of light.
uses three camera, three projectors and a curved screen. Viewers sitting in the center of the first ten rows feel immersed in the image. Technique was expensive and only a few films were made.
film thats released to the movie theaters for exhibition.
accomplished by moving the camera along a specially built track. They track movement laterally or in and out of depth of the frame.
a single, uninterrupted series of frames.
Depth of Field
the distance that appears in focus in front of and behind the subject. Determined by the aperture, distance, and focal length of lens.
Events are not tightly connected in a cause & effect sequence & characters don't focus on single goal. Emphasizes repetition of everyday events.
the annotated script, containing information about set-ups used during shooting.
selection and ordering of actions explicitly presented on screen.
Three Act Structure
- act one = introduces characters, goals, and conflict. ends with first turning point.
- act two = protagonist meets obstacles arising from another central character who opposes them (antagonist). Conflict increases leading to major turning point, the climax.
- act three = presents events that resolve conflict. When concluding moments of film leave no unanswered questions, film achieves closure.
certain episodic narratives that conclude without resolving conflict.
a technique of leaving empty space around the subject in the frame, in order to convey openness and continuity of visible space and to imply off-screen space.
destruction of theatrical illusion to elicit intellectual response from audience.
the artful use of light and dark areas in the composition in black and white filmmaking.
a narrative, visual or sound element that refers viewers to other films or works of art.
a french term meaning dark film, describes a genre of American films with a downbeat tone that emerged in the 1940s. Focused on social outcasts - criminals, private detectives, and losers - trapped in violent circumstances.
aimed at the subject from behind and above, visually separates subject from the background. Can produce a silhouette effect.
chronological narrative, that stands behind the events depicted. Includes events that take place during a span of time of syuzhet that are implied but not overtly represented.
(or canted angle) leans to one side. generally the subject creates a diagonal line in the frame. it often signifies a moment of imbalance or loss of control.
moveable objects owned or used by characters and range from cars to a child's teddy bear. Degree of narrative or symbolic importance of props varies. They establish character and hint at change and development.
a series of events that resolves the conflict that has arisen.
place where film action unfolds. general or specific locations, real or imaginary.
consists of a character who narrates an embedded tale to onscreen or implied listeners. Allows for creation of two distinct diegesis.
refers to the size of the film (standard = 35mm).
Point of View Shot
occurs when audience shares visual perspective of character or group of characters. used to align audience with character.
Fish Eye/Extreme Wide Angle
(less than 17.5mm) dramatically distorts images so most straight lines appear curved.
(also called rushes) footage exposed and developed quickly so that the director can asses the day's work.
diffused and spread. minimizing facial details.
the amount of light striking the film.
a shot transition that involves the gradual disappearance of the image at the same time that a new image gradually appears.
High Key Lighting
lighting design that provides an even illumination of the subject, with many facial details washed out. Creates hopeful mood.
alter actors appearance to resemble character accurately. Three dimensional pieces attached to their faces.
refers to the strength of hue (red, green, blue, yellow, etc.)
repeatedly casting actor in same types of roles. Plays on strengths of acting skills.
Mise en scene
means staging a scene through artful arrangement of actors, scenery, lighting and props.
- does more than support narrative, contributes to viewers emotional response and aesthetic experience.
- elements of: camera work, lenses and frames, film stock and special visual effects.
conveys external events as well as knowledge, thoughts and feelings without narrator. Director give audience information that main character doesn't have.
the measurement in millimeters of the distance from the surface of the lens to the surface of the film in the camera.
What expectations do audiences bring with them to the cinema?
- most viewers form expectations about the kinds of movies they will see.
- Filmmakers anticipate audience expectations and choose whether or not to fulfill them.
- Celeb expectations: Tom Cruise = Action Movie.
- Directors expectations: Judd Apatow = Comedy.
What do popular reviews rely on?
measure the film against a set of standards or criteria. also, carefully assume whom they are addressing. Rolling Stone is more for males in late teen and early twenties.
What are the essential tools for developing a critical approach to the film medium?
- consider the expectations that the influence the filmmakers choices and the audience experiences - mode of organizing, genre, stars and director.
- consider how filmmakers present information, elicit emotions and suggest ideas - films underlying structure, theme, references to people and events
Who invented kinetograph?
Thomas Edison and William Dickson.
What element did Russiam theorist Tzyetian Todorov argue that all narratives involve?
disruption of stable environment.
What is the difference between diegetic and non-diegetic elements?
Diegetic is implied world of the story - setting, characters, sounds and events. Non-Diegetic is elements existing outside the story that the audience sees but the characters do not - credits, film music. A narrator is a non-diegetic element unless its a character in the story making narration a part of the story.
What effect does an extreme long shot have on the viewer? A low angle? A point of view shot? A canted or dutch angle?
- Extreme long shot emphasize the environment and space, distancing the audience emotionally with the character.
- A low angle exaggerates character size and volume. They often appear more powerful.
- A point of view shot is used to align audience with characters.
- A dutch or canted angle uses the subject to create diagonal line in the frame. signifies imbalance or loss of control.
When did alternative modes of filmmaking come into existence?
Alternative modes of filmmaking have always existed.
What effect do aesthetically successful films intent to have on their audience?
- develop characters
- tell a story
- produce distinctive look
- suggest ideas
- evoke emotions
When did films begin using color techniques?
- filmmaking always involved color before color film stock existed. They hand painted black and white film stock with color.
- By 1910, most films used color. Mostly by tinting. By 1920, 80 percent of films were tinted. Another method was toning.
What impact have digital technologies had on filmmaking?
- affects the way filmmakers make movies and viewers watch them.
- digital revolution made digital camera and editing affordable.
- Added more capabilities in post production. Can edit digitally and then rescan to film later.
- Revival of blockbusters - 300, Clash of the Titans. Can duplicate huge crowds.
How are fast motion and slow motion achieved?
- to produce fast motion = images are recorded at a slower speed than that of projected.
- to produce slow motion = images are recorded at a faster speed than that of projected.
What are French Poetic Realist films known for?
- emphasize the space of the story world: the setting and arrangement of characters.
- also, emphasize the complex interplay between individuals and society.
- Use careful construction of mise en scéne and elaborate camera work.
What processes are involves in cinematography? What elements are parts of cinematography?
Synonymous with photography, a photochemical process. Now includes non-photographic processes such as Computer generated imagery.
- Camerawork (operation, placement and movement)
- Lenses and Filters
- Film Stock
- Special Visual Effects
Describe the popularity of animation - past and present.
Animation grew popular when Disney invented Mickey Mouse and Warner Brothers developed Porky Pig, Daffy Duck, Elmer Fudd and Bugs Bunny. Disney achieved success with Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Pinocchio in the 1930s & 40s. Animation hit a slump until the 1990s when Disney bought Pixar and their first movie Toy Story was a success. Toy Story and Shrek (animated features) were some of the highest grossing films when they were released.
What are some of the effects of digital cinematography?
CGI allows for creation of huge crowds through duplication. Digital Composition allows filmmakers to recreate historical times.
What is the Academy Ratio?
What is the standard pattern that shapes narrative films?
The three act structure.
What are the components of mise en scene?
- human figure
What are the attributes that light exhibits?
- Quality (soft or hard)
- Placement (direction from which light strikes
- Contrast (high or low)
What elements contribute to a balanced composition?
Equitable distribution of bright and dark areas, striking colors, objects and/or figures.
What did Guillermo del Toro use to distinguish between each milieu in Pan's Labryinth?
- different color color hues.
- Ofelia at home (inhospitable world) = blue
- Ofelia in fantasy world = orange & red
- Ofelia with faun = greenish bridge hue
What does a film stock's speed refer to?
measures the films sensitivity to light. The higher the number, the more sensitive it is and the more grainy it is. Lower the number or slower the film the more sharp, non grain.
What does German Expressionism reflect?
- Debate whether it reflects German Culture and Psychology or simply a creative response to financial constraints.
- Some argue Caligari reflects German interests in mysticism and ominously foretells coming of Hitler.
What tradition is most commonly associated with classical narration?
Classical Hollywood Cinema.
What are the primary functions of setting?
- establish time and place
- introduce ideas and themes
- create mood
What effect is achieved by having a character occupy the foreground of a scene?
- highlights their narrative significance.
- Direct viewers attention.
What are two characteristics of German Expressionism's visual style?
- chiaroscuro lighting
- diagonal lines
- bizarre artificial sets
What are the basic narrative structures used in film?
- Act one: exposition leads to turning point
- Act two: complication leads to climax
- Act three: Actions leading to resolution
Give examples of mise en scene in Singing in the Rain.
- Don setting up the cliché romantic setting to express his love for Kathy.
- Lina's character had lots of fur coats, big shiny dresses and loud jewelry. Where Kathy's character had plain and simple clothing with little to no accessories. These props depicted Lina's character as fake, attention grabbing and "important." Where Kathy's outfits let her personality stand out.
Deconstruct a scene from Hud or Black Narcissus in respect to its cinematography.
Scene where Hud forces himself on Alma:
Starts off with Medium and Long shots. Moves into the first close up, when Alma is frantically trying to close lock the door. Implying impending doom. Then when they struggle against the wall, quick close up shots that alternate views. Show this is the climax of that scene. After Lonnie breaks everything up, moves back out to medium and long shots. The bad part is over.
The lighting on Hud is mostly in shadow. When he makes moves toward her house, the shadows cover his whole face making him look more sinister. When he enters her house, he turns off the lights and their initial struggle is in silhouette. Lonnie enters, the lights turn on. After when Hud is washing his face, he is in shadow and Lonnie is lit. Contrast between good and bad.
The angles are subtle high and lows during their struggle. At the end when Hud has left and Lonnie is standing in the house, its a high angle with Alma still on the floor. She looks small, a victim but yet it also feels like she is guilty as well.
The lighting and different shots in the scene set the mood. We know something bad is about to happen when Hud's face moves out of the light. Lonnie's involvement in the whole scene is almost always lit. His character is the hero in the scene and the lighting symbolizes that.
Give examples of what type of narration is used and how narration is used in Annie Hall.
- Direct Address is used in the exposition and throughout the film. This aligns the viewers with Alvy emotionally.
- Subtitles are used to tell the viewers what the characters are really thinking.
- Split Screen is used to compare Alvy's family with Annies.