Science Final exam vocab

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Molly15
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20122
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Science Final exam vocab
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2010-05-20 22:27:51
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  1. the strong, lower part of the mantle between the asthenosphere and the outer core
    • mesosphere
  2. the thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
    Crust
  3. the solid outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle
    lithosphere
  4. the central part of the Earth's below the mantle also center of the sun
    core
  5. the part of the Earth where life exists
    biosphere
  6. the layer of rock between Earth's crust and core
    mantle
  7. a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
    atmosphere
  8. a system in which energy, but not matter is exchanged with the surroundings
    closed system
  9. the portion of the Earth that is water
    hydrosphere
  10. the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surface of the crust w
    geosphere
  11. a system in which both matter and energy are exchanged with the surroundings
    • open system
  12. the way in which a mineral reflects light
    luster
  13. the tendency of a mineral to break into irregular, uneven surfaces
    fracture
  14. the color of a mineral in powdered form
    streak
  15. inorganic solid with characteristics chemical composition and physical properties
    mineral
  16. the tendancy of a mineral to split along specific planes of weakness to form smooth, flat surfaces
    cleavage
  17. the measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
    hardness
  18. the ratio of the mass of a substances's mass to its volume
    density
  19. rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
    igneous rock
  20. rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the earth's suface
    intrusive igneous rock
  21. rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
    extrusive igneous rock
  22. magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color
    felsic
  23. magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
    mafic
  24. the process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlying sediments
    compaction
  25. the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock
    cementation
  26. rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
    clastic sedimentary rock
  27. the rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
    nonfoliated
  28. a change in the texturem structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma
    contact metamorphism
  29. the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure
    metamorphism
  30. the rock texture in which mineral grains are arrainged in planes or bands
    foliation
  31. a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area
    regional metamorphism
  32. the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystalize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
    Bowen's reaction series
  33. the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geologic processes
    rock cycle
  34. the process by which new oceanic lithosphere move
    sea-floor spreading
  35. undersea mountain range
    mid-ocean ridge
  36. magnetic field that points south
    reversed polarity
  37. the supercontinent that formed 300 million years ago
    Pangaea
  38. the hypothesis that continents were once joined and then broke apart
    continental drift
  39. the theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere move
    plate tectonics
  40. a mixture of gases primarily nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, that surrounds the earth
    atmosphere
  41. the lowerst layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases; weather conditions exist here
    troposphere
  42. the layer of the atmosphere in which temperature increases as altitude increases
    stratosphere
  43. the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere in which temperture decreases as the altitude increases
    mesosphere
  44. the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, includes the ionosphere
    thermosphere

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