Evolution/Diseases-Biology

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drewdisp
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20123
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Evolution/Diseases-Biology
Updated:
2010-05-20 22:11:46
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Biology evolution diseases
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Evolution and Diseases Unit for Biology
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  1. Early theory that life came from non-life
    abiogenesis
  2. life from preexisting life (part of the cell theory)
    biogenesis
  3. Put the following in order according to which occurred further in the past to the most recent: aerobic eukaryotes, organic molecules, anaerobic prokaryotes, inorganic molecules, aerobic prokaryotes
    Inorganic molecules, organic molecules, anaerobic prokaryotes, aerobic prokaryotes, aerobi eukaryotes
  4. Theory that states species change over time
    Evolution
  5. evloped by Lamark. Individuals lose characteristics they do not require (or use) and develop charactersistics that are useful.
    Theory of Acquired characteristics (use-disuse hypothesis
  6. How does Lamark suggest the giraffe got its' long neck?
    All giraffes started out with short necks and they stretched their necks to get food. This stretching caused the giraffe to get a longer neck. They passes this acquired trait on to their offspring.
  7. Newer forms appearing in the fossil record are actually modified descendents of older species.
    Descent with modification.
  8. How does Darwin suggest the giraffe got its long neck.
    There were giraffes witha ll different length necks. The giraffes with the longer necks survived better because they got more food. The long neck giraffes also reproduced more, passing this trait to their offspring.
  9. Organsisms with certain positive variations survive, reproduce,a nd pass their variations on to the next generation. Organisms without these variations are less like to survive and reproduce.
    Natural selection.
  10. A change that makes the organisms more suitable to their environment.
    Adaptation.
  11. The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment.
    Fitness
  12. Explain the connection between bacteria becoming resistant to (not being able to be killed by) antibiotics and evolution.
    Antiobiotics kill most bacteria, but some with a beneficial mutation survuve. These bacteria reproduce and produce more that are able to survive the antibiotics.
  13. What are the 4 main things needed for evolution to occur?
    Overproduction, competition for resources, variation, natural selection.
  14. a group of organisms that produce viable offspring
    species
  15. all individuals in a species that live together in one place at one time
    population
  16. Evolution in which there are small genetic changes in the gene pool of a population
    Microevolution
  17. all in the alleles in a populaiton
    gene pool
  18. what are the 3 types of natural selection that cause changes in the gene pool?
    Directional, stabilizing and diversifying or disruptive
  19. "it pays to be different"- individuals with traits at one end are more common than midrange forms
    directional natural selection
  20. "it pays to be average"-eliminates individuals on both ends of the range and favors midrange individuals ex: birthweight
    stabilizing natural selection
  21. both ends of the range are favored and those in the middle are reduced ex: finch beaks
    diversifying or disruptive natural selection
  22. Evolution in which there are changes in a species so a new species is formed
    macroevolution
  23. WHen a new species is formed from an already existing species
    speciation
  24. What are the two things that contribute to speciation?
    Reproductive and geoprahic isolation
  25. WHen 2 population of a species or groups of the same population become separated into different areas with different environmental conditions
    geographic isolation
  26. Occurs when 2 groups become so different they can no longer reproduce and produce viable offspring.
    reproductive isolation
  27. WHen one species becomes two ex: arctic fox and gray fox
    divergent evolution
  28. When two different species develop similar traits due to similar environments ex: dolphin and a shark
    convergent evolution
  29. Changes in genetic composition of one species in response to change in another.
    Coevolution
  30. What are 6 forms of evidence for evolution?
    Fossils, bioogical molecules (DNA and proteins), anatomy (vestigial organs and homologous structures), embryonic development, geographical distribution, physical changes in phenotype (adaptive coloration and mimicry)
  31. Determining order of events in relation to other objects
    relative dating
  32. determining a specific date for a fossil. Based on radioactive decay- atom spontanaeously changes to another atom in a measurable amount of time
    absolute dating
  33. A species from which 2 or more species have diverged
    common ancestors
  34. How to proteins and DNA provide evidence for evolution?
    When looking at two different species, the more similar their DNA/[rotein, the more closely related they are.
  35. How do cladograms/phylogenetic trees provide evidence for evolution?
    Shwow how organisms are related through evolution.
  36. Structures that are present in an organism but reduced in size or have less important function.
    vestigial structures
  37. structures that share a common ancestry (similar structure but different functions)
    homologous structures
  38. Similar function but different structure- does not show common ancestry
    analagous structures
  39. Coloration that allows an organism to blend in with its environment
    adaptive coloration
  40. a harmless species resembles one that is dangerous and distasteful to avoid being eaten
    mimicry
  41. How does embryonic development provide evidence for evolution
    similarities in early development show similar genes are at work.
  42. substance not recognized by the body that causes an immune response
    antigen
  43. proteins that recognize and bind to antigens
    antibody
  44. defense against abnormal cells and pathogens inside living cells
    t-cells
  45. track down and destroy foreign cell
    killer t-cells
  46. shut down killer t-cells when infection is under control
    supressor t-cells
  47. produce memory t-cells and activate killer t cells and b cells
    helper t-cells
  48. provide immunity against antigens and pathogens in body fluids. Form antibodies to bind to antigens and destroy them.
    b cells
  49. ells that recognize an antigen that already entered our body and are ready to attack.
    memory t and b cells
  50. short-term immunity when antibodies produced by other animals for a pathogen are injected into the body. ex: receiving vaccines before going to another country
    passive immunity
  51. body makes own antibodies in response to an antigen
    active immunity
  52. olutions containing weakened or killed pathogens
    vaccines
  53. block the growth or reproduction of bacteria (can't be used to fight viruses). it is taken after the infeciton has started.
    antiobiotics
  54. a disease-causing agent
    pathogen
  55. are viruses considered living?
    no because they do not have all the characteristics of life.
  56. What characteristics of life does a virus have?
    Contain DNA and change over time (only 2 of the 8 characteristics)
  57. What are two similarities between viruses and bacteria?
    they both contain DNA and both can cause disease.
  58. What are some differences between viruses and bacteria?
    Viruses- nonliving, cannot reproduce on their own, very small. Bacteria- living, reproduce on their own by binary fission, larger than viruses.
  59. Viral infection that destroys helper T-cells, which are part of the immune system and then body cannot fight infections that that normal person can
    HIV
  60. Viral infection that causes body aches, fever, sore throat, stuffy nose, headache and fatigue
    influenze
  61. Viral infection that is a deadly disease that causes pustules (bumps on body filled with pus), high fever, fatigue
    smallpox
  62. Bacterial infection that causes strep throat, fever, sore throat, swollen glands
    streptococcous
  63. Causes the red blood cells to be sickle shaped. Due to a missense mutation.
    sickle cell anemia
  64. Caused by plasmodium, which is a parasite that infects red blood cells. Carriers (AS) for sickle cell aniemia are resistant to his desease and have an advantage to those who are not carriers (AA)
    malaria
  65. Disease that is increased by tobacco usage. Tobacco is a carcinogen (canger-causing agent), which can damage DNA that controls cell growth and division
    Lung and mouth cancer
  66. Sun exposure can cause mutations in DNA that control cell growth and division. Sun exposure also causes breakdown of folic acide in the skin, which can lead to sin cancer. Eat foods rich in folic acid. Folic acid is also important for development of the spine in a fetus.
    Skin cancer
  67. Disease that causes weak bones which can lead to fractures and deformity due to little vitamin D and calcium. Sun exposure helps skin produce vitamin D which helps with bone growth and increases calcium and phosphorus absorption.
    rickets
  68. Body is not able to produce insulin to absorb excess surgar from the blood.
    diabetes
  69. Genetic disorder that results in build up of the amino acid phenylalanine in tissues because body doesn't have enzyme to break it down, which leads to mental retardation. Can be controlled by diet low in phenylalanice.
    PKU
  70. Environmental toxin sometimes found in drinking water. Causes brain and kidney damage.
    Lead poisoning
  71. Environmental toxin. can get into the envrionment through burning of fossil fuels. causes brain and kidney damage
    mercury poisoning.

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