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2013-02-17 19:32:47
Chapter 17 Blood

Nursing A&P Ch 17
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  1. Plasma makes up what percentage of blood?
  2. Blood is made up of...
    plasma and formed elements
  3. What color is plasma?
    straw color
  4. What are formed elements?
    Everything in blood except for plasma
  5. What is considered a formed element?
    • RBCs
    • WBCs
    • Proteins
    • Clotting factors
    • Platelets
  6. How many liters does a young adult male have?
    5 liters
  7. What are erythrocytes?
    red blood cells
  8. Describe mature RBCs.
    • No nucleus
    • Biconcave disks
    • No ribosomes, mitochondria, or organelles
    • Primary component is hemoglobin
    • Most numerous of the formed elements
  9. What does hemoglobin do?
    Carry O2 and CO2
  10. What is the function of RBCs?
    • transport of O2 & CO2 by hemoglobin
    • secretes carbonic anhydrase
    • secretes carbonic acid
  11. What is carbonic anhydrase?
    enzyme in RBCs that catalyzes a reaction that joins CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid
  12. What is carbonic acid?
    dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBCs and serve to transport CO2 in the blood plasma.
  13. How many molecules of hemoglobin are in each RBC?
    200-300 million
  14. What differs about hemoglobin between males and females?
    Males have a greater amount of hemoglobin than females
  15. What is erythropoiesis?
    Entire process of RBC formation
  16. RBC formation begins...
    in the red bone marrow with hemopoietic stem cells that become RBC
  17. How long does it take hemopoietic stem cells to mature into erythrocytes?
    approx 4 days
  18. RBC are created and destroyed at what rate?
    100 million per minute in an adult
  19. What is the life span of a circulating RBC?
    105-120 days
  20. What happens when hemoglobin is broken down?
    Amino acids, iron, and bilirubin are released
  21. Name 3 granulocytes.
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  22. What makes up 65% of total WBC count?
  23. What makes up for 2-5% of circulating WBC?
  24. What makes up 0.5-1% of circulating WBCs?
  25. What granulocytes contain histamine and heparin?
  26. Eosinophils show up for...
    allergies and parasites
  27. What is no longer produced in AIDS patients?
    T Cells
  28. Name 2 agranulocytes.
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  29. What are the smallest and second most  numerous WBC?
  30. What do T Cells do?
    directly attack an infected or cancerous cell
  31. What do B cells do?
    • produce antibodies against specific antigens
    • Are memory cells that remember how to fight certain antigens
  32. What are Monocytes?
    • Largest type of leukocyte.¬†
    • Migrate into tissues and become macrophages
  33. What happens during low levels of O2?
    increase production of red blood cells
  34. All granulocytes and a few agranulocytes originate...
    in the red bone marrow
  35. Where do most lymphocytes and monocytes develop?
    From hemopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue
  36. Where do clots in the veins eng up?
    Lungs or heart
  37. Where do clots in the arteries end up?
  38. What do platelets do?
    They play an important role in hemostasis and blood coagulation
  39. What do sticky platelets do?
    form physical plug and secrete several chemicals involved in the coagulation process
  40. What is plasma?
    • Liquid part of blood.
    • Made up of 90% water and 10% solutes
  41. What are the three stages of coagulation?
    • Stage I- production of thromboplastin
    • Stage II- conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    • Stage III- conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of fibrin clot
  42. What factors oppose clotting?
    • Perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining.
    • Antithrombins- ex: heparin
  43. What are some factors that hasten clotting?
    • rough spot on endothelium
    • abnormally slow blood flow
  44. What are some conditions that dissolve clots?
    • Fibrinolysis
    • Fibrinolysin