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Plasma makes up what percentage of blood?
Blood is made up of...
plasma and formed elements
What color is plasma?
What are formed elements?
Everything in blood except for plasma
What is considered a formed element?
- Clotting factors
How many liters does a young adult male have?
What are erythrocytes?
red blood cells
Describe mature RBCs.
- No nucleus
- Biconcave disks
- No ribosomes, mitochondria, or organelles
- Primary component is hemoglobin
- Most numerous of the formed elements
What does hemoglobin do?
Carry O2 and CO2
What is the function of RBCs?
- transport of O2 & CO2 by hemoglobin
- secretes carbonic anhydrase
- secretes carbonic acid
What is carbonic anhydrase?
enzyme in RBCs that catalyzes a reaction that joins CO2 and H2O to form carbonic acid
What is carbonic acid?
dissociates and generates bicarbonate ions, which diffuse out of the RBCs and serve to transport CO2 in the blood plasma.
How many molecules of hemoglobin are in each RBC?
What differs about hemoglobin between males and females?
Males have a greater amount of hemoglobin than females
What is erythropoiesis?
Entire process of RBC formation
RBC formation begins...
in the red bone marrow with hemopoietic stem cells that become RBC
How long does it take hemopoietic stem cells to mature into erythrocytes?
approx 4 days
RBC are created and destroyed at what rate?
100 million per minute in an adult
What is the life span of a circulating RBC?
What happens when hemoglobin is broken down?
Amino acids, iron, and bilirubin are released
Name 3 granulocytes.
What makes up 65% of total WBC count?
What makes up for 2-5% of circulating WBC?
What makes up 0.5-1% of circulating WBCs?
What granulocytes contain histamine and heparin?
Eosinophils show up for...
allergies and parasites
What is no longer produced in AIDS patients?
What are the smallest and second most numerous WBC?
What do T Cells do?
directly attack an infected or cancerous cell
What do B cells do?
- produce antibodies against specific antigens
- Are memory cells that remember how to fight certain antigens
What are Monocytes?
- Largest type of leukocyte.
- Migrate into tissues and become macrophages
What happens during low levels of O2?
increase production of red blood cells
All granulocytes and a few agranulocytes originate...
in the red bone marrow
Where do most lymphocytes and monocytes develop?
From hemopoietic stem cells in lymphatic tissue
Where do clots in the veins eng up?
Lungs or heart
Where do clots in the arteries end up?
What do platelets do?
They play an important role in hemostasis and blood coagulation
What do sticky platelets do?
form physical plug and secrete several chemicals involved in the coagulation process
What is plasma?
- Liquid part of blood.
- Made up of 90% water and 10% solutes
What are the three stages of coagulation?
- Stage I- production of thromboplastin
- Stage II- conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
- Stage III- conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin and production of fibrin clot
What factors oppose clotting?
- Perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining.
- Antithrombins- ex: heparin
What are some factors that hasten clotting?
- rough spot on endothelium
- abnormally slow blood flow
What are some conditions that dissolve clots?
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