psychology

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ncampbe5
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201283
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psychology
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2013-02-17 19:53:38
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  1. cognition
    the mental processes such as perception, attention, and memory and so on
  2. reaction time
    how long it takes to respond to presentation of a stimulus
  3. structuralism
    our overall experience is determined by combining basic elements of experiences, called sensation
  4. introspection
    a technique in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli
  5. classical conditioning
    how pairing one stimulus with another, previously neutral stimulus causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus
  6. operant conditioning
    foucused on how behavior is strengthened by the presentation of positive reinforcers such as food or social approval
  7. the misbehavior of organisms
    learning could not override instinct
  8. Skinner argued children learn language...
    through operant conditioning
  9. Chomsky aruged..
    that imitation and reinforcement do not completetly explain how children learn language
  10. emperical
    relying on or derived from observation or experiment
  11. reductionism
    attempt to understand complex phenomena by breaking them down into their components
  12. methatheory
    guiding principle for cognitive psychgology
  13. information
    collection of facts or data; knowledge derived from perception, experience, study or instruction
  14. processing
    a series of actions, changes, or functions brining about a result
  15. the channel capacity analogy
    humans are limited-capacity information processors like telephone wires
  16. the computer analogy
    human information processing may be like a computer
  17. What is reaction time typically measured in?
    1000 milliseconds=1 seconds
  18. What does reaction times tell us?
    when people know what to expect reaction times are faster;learning and memory processes help reduce reaction times
  19. Accuracy measures
    how many errors subjects make; often measured as proportion or percent correct
  20. Speed-accuracy trade off
    as speed increases, accuracy decreases
  21. Neurons
    building blocks of the nervous system; cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system
  22. each neuron has a...
    cell body, an axon, and dendrites
  23. cell body
    contains mechanisms to keep cell alive
  24. axon
    tube filled with fluid that transmots electrical signal to other neurons
  25. dendrites
    multiple brances reaching from the cell body, which recieves information from other neurons
  26. action potential
    neuron receives signal from environment; information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of anothe neuron
  27. Measuring action potential
    microelectrodes pick up electrical signal, placed near axon, active for ~1 second
  28. What do you measure in action potential?
    the size is not measured; size remains constant. the rate of firing is measured; low intensities: slow firing; high intensities : fast firing
  29. synapse
    space between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another
  30. when the action potential reaches the end of the axon...
    synaptic vesicles open and release chemical neurotransmitters; neurotransmitter cross the synapse and bind witht he receiving dendrites
  31. neurotransmitters
    chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neuron
  32. excitatory
    increases chance neuron will fire
  33. inhibitory
    decreases chance neuron will fire
  34. communication netween neurons
    not all signals received lead to action potential; cell membrane processes the number of impulses received
  35. an action potential results only if the....
    threshold level is reached; interaction of excitation and inhibition
  36. frontal lobe
    reasoning and planning; language, though, memory, motor functioning
  37. parietal
    touch, temperature, pain, and pressure
  38. temporal lobe
    auditory and perceptual processing; language, hearing, memory, perceiving forms
  39. occipital lobe
    visual processing
  40. thalamus
    processing information from vision, hearing, and touch senses
  41. hypothalamus
    body's vital drives and activites (eating, drinking, sleep, sexual activity)
  42. hippocampus
    learning and forming memories
  43. amygdala
    emotions and emotional memories
  44. primary receiving areas for vision
    occipital lobe
  45. primary receiving areas for touch, temperature, pain
    parietal lobe
  46. primary receiving area for hearing, tast, smell
    temporal lobe
  47. coordination of information received from all senses
    frontal lobe
  48. fusiform face area (FFA) responds specifically to...
    faces; temporal lobe; damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces)
  49. parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds specifically to...
    places (indoor/outdoor scenes); temporal lobe
  50. extrastriate body area (EBA) responds specifically to...
    pictureof bodies and parts of bodies
  51. Brain lesions
    examine brain damage during autopsies
  52. Method: electrical activation
    single cell recoring, event-rekated potentials (ERP), electroencephalograms (EEG)
  53. Method: Brain Imaging
    positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), computerized axial tomography(CAT)
  54. future detectors
    neutons that respind best to a specific stimulus
  55. simple cells
    neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation
  56. complex cells
    neurons that respond bestto an oriented bar of light with a specific length
  57. specificity coding
    representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus
  58. distributed coding
    reprensation by a pattern of firing across a number of neurons

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