Card Set Information
ch 1 and 2
the mental processes such as perception, attention, and memory and so on
how long it takes to respond to presentation of a stimulus
our overall experience is determined by combining basic elements of experiences, called sensation
a technique in which trained participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli
how pairing one stimulus with another, previously neutral stimulus causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus
foucused on how behavior is strengthened by the presentation of positive reinforcers such as food or social approval
the misbehavior of organisms
learning could not override instinct
Skinner argued children learn language...
through operant conditioning
that imitation and reinforcement do not completetly explain how children learn language
relying on or derived from observation or experiment
attempt to understand complex phenomena by breaking them down into their components
guiding principle for cognitive psychgology
collection of facts or data; knowledge derived from perception, experience, study or instruction
a series of actions, changes, or functions brining about a result
the channel capacity analogy
humans are limited-capacity information processors like telephone wires
the computer analogy
human information processing may be like a computer
What is reaction time typically measured in?
1000 milliseconds=1 seconds
What does reaction times tell us?
when people know what to expect reaction times are faster;learning and memory processes help reduce reaction times
how many errors subjects make; often measured as proportion or percent correct
Speed-accuracy trade off
as speed increases, accuracy decreases
building blocks of the nervous system; cells specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system
each neuron has a...
cell body, an axon, and dendrites
contains mechanisms to keep cell alive
tube filled with fluid that transmots electrical signal to other neurons
multiple brances reaching from the cell body, which recieves information from other neurons
neuron receives signal from environment; information travels down the axon of that neuron to the dendrites of anothe neuron
Measuring action potential
microelectrodes pick up electrical signal, placed near axon, active for ~1 second
What do you measure in action potential?
the size is not measured; size remains constant. the rate of firing is measured; low intensities: slow firing; high intensities : fast firing
space between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another
when the action potential reaches the end of the axon...
synaptic vesicles open and release chemical neurotransmitters; neurotransmitter cross the synapse and bind witht he receiving dendrites
chemicals that affect the electrical signal of the receiving neuron
increases chance neuron will fire
decreases chance neuron will fire
communication netween neurons
not all signals received lead to action potential; cell membrane processes the number of impulses received
an action potential results only if the....
threshold level is reached; interaction of excitation and inhibition
reasoning and planning; language, though, memory, motor functioning
touch, temperature, pain, and pressure
auditory and perceptual processing; language, hearing, memory, perceiving forms
processing information from vision, hearing, and touch senses
body's vital drives and activites (eating, drinking, sleep, sexual activity)
learning and forming memories
emotions and emotional memories
primary receiving areas for vision
primary receiving areas for touch, temperature, pain
primary receiving area for hearing, tast, smell
coordination of information received from all senses
fusiform face area (FFA) responds specifically to...
faces; temporal lobe; damage to this area causes prosopagnosia (inability to recognize faces)
parahippocampal place area (PPA) responds specifically to...
places (indoor/outdoor scenes); temporal lobe
extrastriate body area (EBA) responds specifically to...
pictureof bodies and parts of bodies
examine brain damage during autopsies
Method: electrical activation
single cell recoring, event-rekated potentials (ERP), electroencephalograms (EEG)
Method: Brain Imaging
positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), computerized axial tomography(CAT)
neutons that respind best to a specific stimulus
neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation
neurons that respond bestto an oriented bar of light with a specific length
representation of a specific stimulus by firing of specifically tuned neurons specialized to just respond to a specific stimulus
reprensation by a pattern of firing across a number of neurons