Psychology exam

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Psychology exam
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Psychology exam
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  1. What is the definition of psychology?
    Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
  2. What is the scientific method?
    Orderly systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a problem, create a study, collect data,draw conclusions, and tell their findings.
  3. What is a theory?
    General principle or set of principles proposed to explain how seperate facts are related.
  4. What is a hypothesis?
    Prediction about a relationship between two or more variables.
  5. WHy does one design a study?
    TO test the hypothesis.
  6. WHy does one collect data?
    To collect data relevant to the hypothesis.
  7. What is replication?
    Repeating a study with different people and different investigator to verify findings.
  8. What are the goals of psychology?
    To describe, explain, predict, and influence.
  9. In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is Description?
    describe behavior or mental processes as accrately as possible.
  10. In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is explanation?
    To suggest causes for behavior or mental preocesses of interest
  11. In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is prediction?
    Specifying conditions under which behavior or mental processes is likely to occur.
  12. In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is influence?
    applying a principle or a change of condition in order to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes. 
  13. What is basic research?
    Research conducted to seek knowledge and o explore and advance general scientific understanding
  14. What is applied research?
    Research conducted to solve practical problems and improve quality of life.
  15. Who was the "father of psychology"?
    Wilhelm Wundt
  16. What is introspection?
    Involves looking inward to examine one's own conscious experience and then reporting it.
  17. Who thought of structuralism?
    Edward Titchener.
  18. What is structuralism?
    first formal school of thought in psychology, analyzed basic elements of the conscious mental experience.
  19. What was wrong with Structuralism and introspection?
    Both involved a person examining their own conscious state so they were not objective.
  20. Why was structuralism so important?
    It established psychology as a science since they insisted that mental processes could be measured and studied through the scientific process.
  21. What is functionalism?
    Field of psyhcology concerened with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment
  22. Who was functionalism influenced by?
    Who was functionaisms main advocate?
    • Charles Darwin
    • William James
  23. Who was Christine Ladd-Franklin?
    She was a psychologist who completed requirements for her Ph.D but had to wait 40 years to get her degree. 
  24. Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
    COmpleted requirements for degree but harvard refused to give it to her.
  25. Who is Margaret Floy Washburn?
    Receved Ph. D from Cornell University
  26. Who is Francis Cecil Sumner
    Father of African American psychology, first african american to earn a ph.D
  27. Who was Albert Sidney Becham?
    African American who studies inteeligence and occupation
  28. Who was Kenneth Clark?
    He wrote on influence of racial segregation and helped the Supreme Court to end segregation in schools.
  29. Who was George Sanchez?
    Saw that cultural and language barriers work against hispanic students when taking IQ test.
  30. What is the fastest growing group of Psychologists?
    Native and asian americans
  31. Which group receives more ph.d's in the field of psychology today?
    Women
  32. What is Naturalistic Observation?
    Research observe behavior in natural setting without influencing or controlling it.
  33. What are the problems with Naturalistic observation?
    • Observer Bias - Observer may see what they want to see
    • Must wait for behavior to occur.
  34. What is a Lab Study?
    A study in a lab that setting that allows more control and use of instrumentation.
  35. What is the problem with lab observation?
    The client may behave differently in a lab setting.
  36. What is a Case Study?
    A group of people are studied over an extended time using observations, interviews, or psychological testing.
  37. What are the limitations of a Case Study?
    • Causes of behavior are difficult to establish
    • Observer bias
    • Hard to apply research to a larger group or different culture
  38. What is survey research?
    Interview or questionnaires used to gather info.
  39. What is the difference between a sample and a representative sample?
    A sample is a piece of the population that is studied in order to research conclusions about the entire population, a representative sample is a sample that mirrors only the population of interest and is proportionate to the population.
  40. What are the two experimental methods?
    • The correlational method
    • The experimantal method
  41. what does a neuron contain?
    • Cell body (Soma)
    • Dendrites
    • Axons
  42. What does the cell body (Soma) do?
    Contains the nucleus and carries out metabolic functions of the neuron
  43. What are dendrites?
    They are the branchlike extensions of theneuron and receives info and sends it to other neurons.
  44. What is the Axon?
    The slender tail-like extension of the neuron, that transmits signals to the dendrites of other neurons, muscles, glands, and other parts.
  45. What are Afferent Neurons?
    Sensory neurons that relay senses to the brain and spinal cord
  46. What are Efferent Neurons?
    Motor Neurons that send info from the Central Nervous system to the glands and muscles
  47. What are the divisions of the Central Nervous system?
    • Central nervous system - brain and spinal cord
    • Pereipheral Nervous system - connects brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
    • Spinal Cord - Extension of the brain  that controls simple reflexes and transmits messages
  48. What is inside the hindbrain?
    • Pons
    • Medulla
    • reticular Formation
    • Cerebellum
  49. What do the POns do?
    relay info between the cerebellum and the motor cortex and infulence sleep and dreaming
  50. What does the Medulla do?
    Controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure swallowing and coughing
  51. What does the reticular formation do?
    Arousal system and activates the cerebral cortex
  52. What does the Cerebellum do?
    • Coordinates skilled movement
    • Regulates muscle tone and posture
    • Role in motor learning and probably cogntion
  53. What is inside the forebrain?
    • Thalamus
    • Limbic System
    • Corpus collosum
  54. What is the thalamus?
    Relay station between cerebral cortex and lower brain.
  55. What is the limbic system?
    Group of structures invovled in emotion, memory, and motivation
  56. What is the Corpus callosum?
    band of nerve fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres
  57. What are the subdivisions of the Perihperal Nervous system?
    • Somatic nervous system
    • Autonomic Nervous System
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Parasympathetic Nervous System
  58. What is the somatic nervous sytem?
    All the sensory and motor neurons that transmit to the brain that make it possible to sense envrionment
  59. What is the autonomic Nervous System?
    Nerves that send involuntary messages between brain and body parts.
  60. What is the Sympathetic Nervous System?
    Mobilizes body during distress and emergencies, prepares body for action
  61. What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
    Brings body back down from to normal after emergency
  62. What are the four lobes in each brain hemisphere?
    • Frontal Lobe
    • Parietal Lobe
    • Occipital Lobe
    • Temporal Lobe
  63. What does the split brain operation treat and do?
    Used to treat severe epilopsy, seperates each hemisphere so that the other side of the brain will not be harmed.
  64. What is Broca's Aphasia?
    Inability to produce speech sounds or an impairment to produce them.
  65. What does the Parietal Lobe do?
    Contains the somatosensory cortex where touch pressure, temperature, and pain register and is responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation.
  66. What is the Occipital Lobe?
    Contains the primary visual cortex and is involved in reception and interpretation of visual information
  67. What is the temporal lobe?
    Contains the primary auditory cortex, receives and interprets auditory info.
  68. What is Wernicke's Aphasia?
    Person can speak but does not make sense to listener
  69. What is Brain Plasticity?
    Capacity of the brain to adapt to changes
  70. What happens to the brain as we get older?
    As we age the brain gains and loses synapses, in adulthood the losses outweigh the gain
  71. What type of brain matter do men have more of than women?
    White
  72. Men have less white matter in which hemisphere?
    Left
  73. What is special about womens brains
    They have equal amounts of both white and gray matter in each hemisphere
  74. What is an EEG?
    electroencephalogram, records brain waves with an electroencephalograph.
  75. What is a beta wave associated with?
    Mental or physical activity
  76. What is an alpha wave associated with?
    Deep relaxation
  77. What is a delta wave associated with?
    Deep sleep
  78. What is a CT scan?
    Computerized Axial Terminal, uses a rotating computerized x-ray tube to process cross sections of the brain.
  79. What is an MRI?
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging, diagnostic scan of the brain that shows structures
  80. What is a PET scan?
    Position emission Tomography, reveals activity in various parts based on blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption.
  81. What is an fMRI?
    Functional Magnetic ressonance imaging, reveals both structure and activity more precisely and rapidly than a PET.
  82. What is a SQUID?
    Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, shows magnetic changes produced by neurons when they fire
  83. What is an MEG?
    Magnetoencephalogram, shows neurons firing and neural activity as it happens.
  84. What is Sensation?
    Process where senses pick up sensory stimuli and send to the brain
  85. What is perception?
    Process where sensory info. is organized and interpreted by the brain.
  86. What is JND?
    Just Notceable Difference, smallest change in sensation that a person is able to detect half the time.
  87. What is absolute threshold?
    minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected half the time.
  88. What is Transabduction?
    When sensory receptors convert  stimulation into a neural impulse.
  89. What is sensory adaptation?
    When sensory receptors become accustomed to constant levels of stimuli.
  90. What are the parts of the eye?
    Retina, lens, Cornea, pupil, rods, cones, fovea, iris
  91. What is the Pupil?
    small opening at center of eye
  92. What is the cornea?
    Protective layer hat covers eye and bends light rays inward.
  93. What is the Iris?
    colored portion of eye that controls how much light is let in
  94. What is the lens?
    disc shaped structure that changes shape to focus on distant objects
  95. What is the retina?
    Layer of tissue that's on te inner surface of eye and contains rods and cones
  96. What are rods?
    Lender cylinders that allow eyes to respond to low light
  97. What are cones?
    enable humans to see color and fine detail but do not function in very dim light.
  98. What is the fovea?
    Small area at center of retina where vision is sharpest
  99. How is sound transmitted?
    Needs a medium to transmit through, such as liquid, gas, or solid.
  100. What is amplitude?
    How loud a sound is measured in decibels
  101. What is Frequency?
    the pitch of a sound determined by hertz
  102. What is the middle ear?
    Part of the ear that contains the ossicles and connects the ear drum to the oval window and amplifies sound waves.
  103. What are the Ossicles?
    Stirrup, anvil, footplate, and hammer
  104. What is in the inner ear?
    Cochlea and hair cells
  105. What is cohclea?
    fluid filled snail shaped bony chamber that contains the basilar membrane and hair cells.
  106. What are hair cells?
    They are the receptors for sound
  107. What is the scientific name for smell?
    Olfaction
  108. What are the olfactory epithium?
    2 one inch squares of tissue at the top of each nasal cavity
  109. What is smell linked to?
    Memory
  110. What are the five basic tastes?
    • Sweet
    • Salty
    • bitter
    • Sour
    • Umami
  111. What is the scientific name for touch?
    Tactile
  112. What is the largest sense organ?
    Skin
  113. What control balance and movement?
    • Kinesthetic sense
    • Vestibular sense
    • Semicircular canals
  114. What are the gestalt principles of perception?
    • Figure-ground
    • Similarity
    • proximity
    • continuity
    • closure
  115. What are the perceptual constancies?
    • size
    • brightness
    • shape
  116. What influences our perception?
    • attention
    • unattentional blindness
    • cocktail part phenomenon
    • focus
  117. What are the depth cues that help with depth perception?
    • Binocular depth cues
    • monocular depth cues
  118. What is consciousness?
    everything we are aware of at any given time
  119. what is an altered state of consciousness?
    changes in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs
  120. What is a circadian rhythm?
    in a 24 hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors
  121. What is the restorative theory of sleep?
    sleep restores body and mind, restores energy and consolidates memory
  122. What is the circadian theory of sleep?
    Sleep evolved to keep humans out of harms way during night time
  123. What is a parasomnia?
    sleep disturbances where you do things that normally occur while you awake
  124. What are sleep terrors?
    Sleeper awakens in state of panic
  125. What are nightmares?
    Frightening vivid dreams usually remembered
  126. What is a dysomnia?
    sleep disorder where timing, quantity, or quality is impaired
  127. What is narcolepsy?
    Incurable sleep disorder where person is attacked by REM sleep during the day with uncontrollable drowziness
  128. What is sleep apnea?
    Occurs during sleep when the individual stops breathing and must wake up to continue breathing
  129. What is Insomnia?
    difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, or sleep is light restless or poor in quality
  130. What is hypnosis?
    where one person uses the power of suggestion to induce changes of thousht, feelings, sensations, perceptions, or behavior in another person
  131. What is the Sociocognitve theory of hypnosis?
    behavior of hypnotized is a function of that person's expectation
  132. What is the Neodissociation theory of hypnosis?
    induces a split between two aspects of the control of consciousness
  133. What is Dissociated control theory of hypnosis?
    an authentic altered state of consciouness in which the control over other subsystems of consciousness is weakened

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