Scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
What is the scientific method?
Orderly systematic procedures that researchers follow as they identify a problem, create a study, collect data,draw conclusions, and tell their findings.
What is a theory?
General principle or set of principles proposed to explain how seperate facts are related.
What is a hypothesis?
Prediction about a relationship between two or more variables.
WHy does one design a study?
TO test the hypothesis.
WHy does one collect data?
To collect data relevant to the hypothesis.
What is replication?
Repeating a study with different people and different investigator to verify findings.
What are the goals of psychology?
To describe, explain, predict, and influence.
In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is Description?
describe behavior or mental processes as accrately as possible.
In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is explanation?
To suggest causes for behavior or mental preocesses of interest
In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is prediction?
Specifying conditions under which behavior or mental processes is likely to occur.
In relation to to the goals of psychology, what is influence?
applying a principle or a change of condition in order to prevent unwanted occurrences or bring about desired outcomes.
What is basic research?
Research conducted to seek knowledge and o explore and advance general scientific understanding
What is applied research?
Research conducted to solve practical problems and improve quality of life.
Who was the "father of psychology"?
What is introspection?
Involves looking inward to examine one's own conscious experience and then reporting it.
Who thought of structuralism?
What is structuralism?
first formal school of thought in psychology, analyzed basic elements of the conscious mental experience.
What was wrong with Structuralism and introspection?
Both involved a person examining their own conscious state so they were not objective.
Why was structuralism so important?
It established psychology as a science since they insisted that mental processes could be measured and studied through the scientific process.
What is functionalism?
Field of psyhcology concerened with how humans and animals use mental processes in adapting to their environment
Who was functionalism influenced by?
Who was functionaisms main advocate?
Who was Christine Ladd-Franklin?
She was a psychologist who completed requirements for her Ph.D but had to wait 40 years to get her degree.
Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?
COmpleted requirements for degree but harvard refused to give it to her.
Who is Margaret Floy Washburn?
Receved Ph. D from Cornell University
Who is Francis Cecil Sumner
Father of African American psychology, first african american to earn a ph.D
Who was Albert Sidney Becham?
African American who studies inteeligence and occupation
Who was Kenneth Clark?
He wrote on influence of racial segregation and helped the Supreme Court to end segregation in schools.
Who was George Sanchez?
Saw that cultural and language barriers work against hispanic students when taking IQ test.
What is the fastest growing group of Psychologists?
Native and asian americans
Which group receives more ph.d's in the field of psychology today?
What is Naturalistic Observation?
Research observe behavior in natural setting without influencing or controlling it.
What are the problems with Naturalistic observation?
Observer Bias - Observer may see what they want to see
Must wait for behavior to occur.
What is a Lab Study?
A study in a lab that setting that allows more control and use of instrumentation.
What is the problem with lab observation?
The client may behave differently in a lab setting.
What is a Case Study?
A group of people are studied over an extended time using observations, interviews, or psychological testing.
What are the limitations of a Case Study?
Causes of behavior are difficult to establish
Hard to apply research to a larger group or different culture
What is survey research?
Interview or questionnaires used to gather info.
What is the difference between a sample and a representative sample?
A sample is a piece of the population that is studied in order to research conclusions about the entire population, a representative sample is a sample that mirrors only the population of interest and is proportionate to the population.
What are the two experimental methods?
The correlational method
The experimantal method
what does a neuron contain?
Cell body (Soma)
What does the cell body (Soma) do?
Contains the nucleus and carries out metabolic functions of the neuron
What are dendrites?
They are the branchlike extensions of theneuron and receives info and sends it to other neurons.
What is the Axon?
The slender tail-like extension of the neuron, that transmits signals to the dendrites of other neurons, muscles, glands, and other parts.
What are Afferent Neurons?
Sensory neurons that relay senses to the brain and spinal cord
What are Efferent Neurons?
Motor Neurons that send info from the Central Nervous system to the glands and muscles
What are the divisions of the Central Nervous system?
Central nervous system - brain and spinal cord
Pereipheral Nervous system - connects brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body.
Spinal Cord - Extension of the brain that controls simple reflexes and transmits messages
What is inside the hindbrain?
What do the POns do?
relay info between the cerebellum and the motor cortex and infulence sleep and dreaming
What does the Medulla do?
Controls heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure swallowing and coughing
What does the reticular formation do?
Arousal system and activates the cerebral cortex
What does the Cerebellum do?
Coordinates skilled movement
Regulates muscle tone and posture
Role in motor learning and probably cogntion
What is inside the forebrain?
What is the thalamus?
Relay station between cerebral cortex and lower brain.
What is the limbic system?
Group of structures invovled in emotion, memory, and motivation
What is the Corpus callosum?
band of nerve fibers that connects the two brain hemispheres
What are the subdivisions of the Perihperal Nervous system?
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
What is the somatic nervous sytem?
All the sensory and motor neurons that transmit to the brain that make it possible to sense envrionment
What is the autonomic Nervous System?
Nerves that send involuntary messages between brain and body parts.
What is the Sympathetic Nervous System?
Mobilizes body during distress and emergencies, prepares body for action
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
Brings body back down from to normal after emergency
What are the four lobes in each brain hemisphere?
What does the split brain operation treat and do?
Used to treat severe epilopsy, seperates each hemisphere so that the other side of the brain will not be harmed.
What is Broca's Aphasia?
Inability to produce speech sounds or an impairment to produce them.
What does the Parietal Lobe do?
Contains the somatosensory cortex where touch pressure, temperature, and pain register and is responsible for body awareness and spatial orientation.
What is the Occipital Lobe?
Contains the primary visual cortex and is involved in reception and interpretation of visual information
What is the temporal lobe?
Contains the primary auditory cortex, receives and interprets auditory info.
What is Wernicke's Aphasia?
Person can speak but does not make sense to listener
What is Brain Plasticity?
Capacity of the brain to adapt to changes
What happens to the brain as we get older?
As we age the brain gains and loses synapses, in adulthood the losses outweigh the gain
What type of brain matter do men have more of than women?
Men have less white matter in which hemisphere?
What is special about womens brains
They have equal amounts of both white and gray matter in each hemisphere
What is an EEG?
electroencephalogram, records brain waves with an electroencephalograph.
What is a beta wave associated with?
Mental or physical activity
What is an alpha wave associated with?
What is a delta wave associated with?
What is a CT scan?
Computerized Axial Terminal, uses a rotating computerized x-ray tube to process cross sections of the brain.
What is an MRI?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, diagnostic scan of the brain that shows structures
What is a PET scan?
Position emission Tomography, reveals activity in various parts based on blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption.
What is an fMRI?
Functional Magnetic ressonance imaging, reveals both structure and activity more precisely and rapidly than a PET.
What is a SQUID?
Superconducting Quantum Interference Device, shows magnetic changes produced by neurons when they fire
What is an MEG?
Magnetoencephalogram, shows neurons firing and neural activity as it happens.
What is Sensation?
Process where senses pick up sensory stimuli and send to the brain
What is perception?
Process where sensory info. is organized and interpreted by the brain.
What is JND?
Just Notceable Difference, smallest change in sensation that a person is able to detect half the time.
What is absolute threshold?
minimum amount of sensory stimulation that can be detected half the time.
What is Transabduction?
When sensory receptors convert stimulation into a neural impulse.
What is sensory adaptation?
When sensory receptors become accustomed to constant levels of stimuli.