LAB8

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jskunz
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201315
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LAB8
Updated:
2013-03-01 23:25:20
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ARTHROLOGY
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ARTHROLOGY
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  1. joint
    • formed when two or more skeletal structures or teeth are united by connective tissue proper or cartilage
    • joint with only two skeletal components is termed a simple joint
    • joint with three or more skeletal structures is called a composite joint
  2. main types of joints
    • recognized based on type and configuration of the connective tissue that unites the skeletal structures:
    • Fibrous Joints, Cartilaginous Joints, and Synovial Joints
  3. Synarthroses
    • Fibrous Joints (singular = synarthrosis)
    • Uniting connective tissue is connective tissue proper (no joint cavity)
    • essentially no movement
    • Three types: syndesmoses, sutures and gomphoses
  4. articular cartilage
    the hyaline cartilage found on the articular surfaces of synovial joints
  5. articular disc
    • a fibrocartiaginous structure that occurs within a few synovial joints, completely separates the articular surfaces
    • improves the congruence of the articular surfaces within the synovial joint
    • The two "articular discs" in each knee joint are called articular menisci
  6. Gomphosis
    • dentoalveolar joint
    • a fibrous joint btwn the root(s) of a tooth and the dental alveolus in which it is embedded. 
    • the fibrous connective tissue connecting the bone and tooth is called periodontium or periodontal ligament
  7. intervertebral discs
    • the fibrocartilaginous structures located at the intervertebral symphyses
    • the gelatinous center of an i.v. disc (nucleus pulposus) is sometimes forced through the outer part (anulus fibrosus) resulting in pressure on the spinal cord or roots of a spinal nerve (herniated disc)
  8. luxation vs. subluxation
    • luxation is dislocation
    • subluxation is partial dislocation
  9. suture
    • a fibrous joint btwn the flat bones of the skull
    • not much connective tissue proper is present because the bones are tightly fitted
    • divided into 4 subgroups based on how the bones articulate: serrated suture, squamous suture, planar suture, and schindylesis
  10. symphysis
    • a fibrocartilaginous joint
    • in the intervertebral symphyses, the bones are united by fibrocartilaginous structured called intervertebral discs, and the pubic symphysis is stabilized by the interpubic disc
  11. synchondrosis
    • a hyaline cartilage joint
    • include the costochondral joints, xiphisternal synchondrosis, some of the joints in the base of the neurocranimu and the joints formed by epiphyseal cartilages in growing bones
  12. syndesmosis
    • a fibrous joint with a significant amount of uniting connective tissue proper
    • Happen btwn the radius and ulna, tibia and fibula, or stapes and temporal bone
    • the connective tissue joining the bones in the radio-ulnar syndesmosis is called the antebrachial interosseous membrane
    • That in the tibiofibular syndesmosis is called the crural interosseous membrane
  13. synostosis
    a bony union
  14. synovial fluid
    • the lubricating and nourishing fluid secreted by the synoviocytes located in the synovial membranes. 
    • usually stabilized by ligaments
    • injury to a synovial joint often induces hypersecretion of synovial fluid ("water on the knee")
  15. cartilagionous joint
    • a joint in which cartilage unites the skeletal structures
    • 2 types: synchondroses (a hyaline cartilage) and symphyses (fibrocartilage)
  16. diarthroses
    synovial joints, 7 types based on the shape of the articular surfaces. United by conn. t.p.; freely movable
  17. serrated suture
    bones are united by interlocking processes resembling the teeth of a saw (as in most of the sagittal suture)
  18. squamous suture
    the bones meet in  beveled, overlapping edges (as in the articulation between the parietal bone and squamous portion of the temporal bone on each side)
  19. Plantar suture
    a simple apposition of the edges of the articulating bones with no overlapping and no interlocking (as in the lacrimomaxillary suture and internasal suture)
  20. schindylesis
    • subgroup of sutures
    • a thin plate of one bone articulates in the cleft of another, as in the articulation of the ethmoid bone and vomer ("tongue and groove"
  21. 7 types of synovial joints
    • Ball and socket:Hip joint, shoulder joint
    • Planter joint: acromioclavicular joint
    • Ginglymus (hinge joint): elbow joints
    • trochoid pivot joint: proximal radioulnar joint
    • saddle joint: first carpometacarpal joint
    • condylar (ellepsoid) joint: radiocarpal joint
    • bicondylar joint: knee joint
  22. ellipsoid or condylar joint
    a synovial joint similar to ball and socket joint except that the "ball" is ellipsoid in shape and rotation is not permitted.  Ex. radiocarpal joint
  23. bicondylar joint
    a synovial joint similar to an ellipsoid (condylar) joint but have two condylar surfaces as in the knee joing
  24. trochoid (pivot) joint
    a synovial joint that allows rotation in one plane due to the pivot-like process truning within a ring. Ex: proximal radio-ulnar joint
  25. saddle joint
    • a modified ellipsoid joint in which the articulating bones are concave in one direction and convex in another (the shape of a western riding saddle)
    • except for the incudomallear joint (btwn the incus and malleus), the only example of this type of joint in the body is the first carpometacarpal joint
  26. planar joint
    • a synovial joint in which the articulating surfaces are flat or only slightly curved. Permits gliding movement in any direction that is limited by the stabilizing ligaments.
    • Ex: some intercarpal and intertarsal joints, as well as the joint involving the articular processes of the vertebrae
  27. parts of a synovial joint
    • Articular joint capsule - encloses joint, is a fibrous conn.t. sheath bridging the involved skeletal elements and inclosing the articular cavity
    • synovial membrane - fibrous layer which lines the capsule
    • Synovial fluid - lubricates and nourishes the articular cartilage which covers the articulating portions of the skeletal components
  28. ligaments
    • are bands of connective tissue proper extending from one skeletal component to another
    • reinforce synovial joint structures
  29. capsular ligaments
    • regional thickenings in the fibrous portion of the joint capsule
    • Ex: knee and shoulder joints
  30. intracapsular ligaments
    • connective tissue bands inside the joint capsule
    • EX: carpal, tarsal, hip, knee, and most of the joints of the heads of the ribs
  31. extracapsular ligaments
    • ligaments outside of and clearly separated from the joint capsule
    • nearly all synovial joints have these
  32. articular menisci
    • similar to articular discs except they do not completely separate the articular surfaces
    • are "C" or "half-moon" shaped
    • their purpose is to "fill in the gaps" between the articular cartilages and to help spread synovial fluid for lube and nourishment of the chondrocytes and chondroblasts
  33. joints of the pectoral girdle
    • sternoclavicular joint
    • acromioclavicular joint
  34. elbow joint
    • a composite synovial articulation formed by the humeral condyle and the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
    • 3 subdivisions that share a common joint cavity: humeroulnar joint, humeroradial joint, and proximal radioulnar joint
  35. radioulnar syndesmosis
    • the side-to-side fibrous joint btwn the radius and ulna.
    • the uniting connective tissue proper forms a sheet connecting the interosseous surface of one bone to that of another
    • the connective tissue is termed the antebrachial interosseous membrane
  36. carpal joints
    • any of the articulations involving the carpal joints:
    • Radiocarpal joint
    • intercarpal joints - middle carpal joint
    • carpometacarpal joints
  37. Radiocarpal joint
    • the joint btwn the carpal articular suface of the radius and the proximal articular surfaces of the proximal row of carpal bones
    • is an intervening articular disc, largest portion of carpal joint motion occurs here
    • other carpal joints have very limited movement
  38. Intercarpal joints
    • joints btwn individual carpal bones (side-to-side as well as end-to-end)
    • ONLY ONE HAS SPECIFIC NAME: joint of the pisiform bone which is the joint btwn the pisiform bone and the triquetral bone
    • the others must be designated descriptively (ex: intercarpal joint btwn the scaphoid bone and lunate bone)
  39. Middle carpal joint
    the transversly oriented joint collectively formed by ALL of the intercarpal joints btween proximal carpal bones and those in the distal row
  40. carpometacarpal joints
    • the synovial joints btwn the distal row of carpal bones and the bases of the metacarpal bones
    • numbered 1-5 in reference to the metacarpal bone that is involved
    • ONLY CARPOMETACARPAL JOINT THAT IS GIVEN AN OFFICIAL NAME is the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
  41. intermetacarpal joints
    • the three side-to-side synovial joints btwn the bases of metacarpal bones 2-5
    • not individually named so descriptive wording must be used
    • (ex: the intermetacarpal joint btwn Mc2 and Mc3)
  42. metacarpophalangeal joints
    • the condylar joints btwn the heads of 5 medatcarpal bones and the bases of the 5 proximal phalanges.
    • numbered 1-5 in reference to metacarpal bone involved (ex: first metacarpophalangeal joint)
    • they can also be referenced by the digit distal to them (ex: metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger)
  43. interphalangeal joints of the hand
    • the nine hinge joints that occur btwn phalanges within the 5 digits
    • thumb contains only one interphalangeal joint called the interphalangeal joint of the thumb
    • All other digits of the manus have two: a proximal interphalangeal joint and a distal interphalangeal joint
    • The full designations of these include name of the digit
    • (ex: proximal interphalangeal joint of the second digit)
  44. pubic symphysis
    • the fibrocartilaginous joint btwn the symphyseal surfaces of the left and right pubic bones
    • the incongruence btwn the left and right os coxae at this joint is filled by a fibrocartilaginous pad named interpubic disc
  45. sacroiliac joint
    • the synovial joint btwn the left or right auricular surface of the bony sacrum and the ipsilateral ilium
    • This joint joins the pelvic limb to the axial skeleton
  46. ligament of the head of the femur bone
    • a strong intracapsular ligament
    • stabilizes the hip joint
    • extends from the fovea capitis femoris to the acetabular fossa
  47. medial/lateral menisci of the knee joint
    • C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures which significantly reduce the incongruence of the junction of rounded femoral condyles and flattened tibial condyles
    • bound in place by a number of ligaments
    • function is to increase joint stability and help distribute synovial fluid
  48. ligaments of the knee joint
    • anterior/posterior cruciate ligaments of the knee joint -(croo she at) strong intercapsular ligaments, extend from intercondylar portion of femur bone to ant/post intercondylar areas of tibia
    • tibial and fibular collateral ligaments of the knee joint
    • patellar ligament of the knee joint - extends from the apex of the patella to the tibial tuberosity
  49. tibiofibular syndesmosis
    • the side-to-side fibrous joint btwn the interosseous borders of the bodies of the tibia and fibula
    • the uniting connective tissue is called the crural interosseous membrane
  50. talocrural joint
    the gingylmus between the trochlea of the talus, the inferior articular surface of the tibia, and the malleolar articular surface of the fibula
  51. intertarsal joints
    • the synovial joints btwn adjacent tarsal bones (side-to-side as well as proximal/distal)
    • several have specific names based on articulating bones
  52. transverse tarsal joint
    • the composite proximal-to-distal articulation formed btwn the proximal two tarsal bones (talus and calcaneus) and the two bones distal to them (navicular and cuboid bones)
    • this joint is analogous to the middle carpal joint in the hand
  53. joints of the head
    • most are sutures, gomphoses, and synochondroses
    • ONLY SYNOVIAL JOINTS are the temporomandibular joints, the atlanto-occipital joint, and those located btwn the three auditory ossicles in each ear
  54. cranial sutures
    33 named sutures in the skull, most named by the bones that are joined
  55. metopic suture
    (me top ik) - if the frontal suture isn't fused by about age 6
  56. sutural bones
    island of bone that occur along the course of sutures
  57. mandibular symphysis
    • joining left/right mandibule
    • the official name of the "joint" is misleading. Since the two halves of the mandible are united by bone tissue, IT IS A SYNOSTOSIS RATHER THAN A SYMPHYSIS
  58. zygapophyseal joints
    • (zi-ga-po-fi-se-al) planar joints btwn articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
    • a typical vertebra participates in 4 of these
  59. how many joints in typical thoracic vertebrae
    • 12
    • 2 intervertebral symphyses
    • 4 zygapophyseal joints
    • 4 synovial joints with the heads of ribs
    • 2 synovial joints the the tubercles of two ribs
  60. intervertebral symphyses
    • fibrocartilaginous joints btwn bodies of adjacent vertebrae
    • intervening fibrocartilage is called an intervertebral disc
  61. intervertebral disc
    • intervening fibrocartilage btwn bodies of adjacent vertebrae
    • outer fibrocartilaginous portion, called anulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc, surrounds a gelatinous center part termed the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc
    • *no intervertebral discs btwn atlanto-occipital joint or btwn the atlanto-axial joint
  62. joints of the heads of the ribs
    • the synovial joints which occur btwn the heads of the ribs and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae
    • heads of most ribs articulate with two adjacent vertebral bodies
    • HOWEVER, heads of ribs 11 and 12 only articulate with the numerically corresponding vertebra...this is often the case with ribs 1 and 10, as well
  63. costotransverse joints
    the planar joints btwn the articular surfaces on the costal tubercles of the ribs and the costal fovea on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae of the same #
  64. costochondral joints
    • the synochondrotic joints btwn the medial ends of the bodies of the ribs and their costal cartilages.
    • *since these are hyaline cartilage joints, their names are misleading
  65. interchondral joints
    • synovial unions on each side btwn medial ends of the costal cartilages of ribs 7-10
    • these unions form the left and right costal arches
  66. dorsiflexion of the talocrural joint
    flexion at the talocrural joint
  67. plantar flexion of the talocrural joint
    extension (rising up onto one's toes)
  68. pronation
    internal (medial) rotation that turns the palmar aspect of the manus medially and then posteriorly
  69. supination
    external (lateral) rotation that turns a pronated manus back toward the normal anatomical position
  70. arthrocentesis
    a needle-puncture into a synovial joint cavity for the purpose of withdrawing synovial fluid, administration of medication or both
  71. arthrotomy
    surgical incision into a joint for examination or repair
  72. describing luxation/subluxation in limb joints
    with directional terms indicating the displacement of distal skeletal component relative to the proximal one.
  73. synostosis
    bony fusion of a joint, results in complete loss of motion
  74. ankylosis
    term often applied when intentional synostosis used to treat arthritic conditions
  75. kyphosis
    a hunch-backed posture related to exaggeration of the normal THORACIC curvature
  76. lordosis
    caused by exaggeration of the lumber curvature of the vertebral column and results in anterior protuberance of the chest
  77. scoliosis
    lateral curvature of the vertebral column
  78. joints of pectoral girdle
    • sternoclavicular joint 
    • acromioclavicular joint - one of few synovial joints that contain an articular disc
  79. three subdivisions of elbow joint
    • humeroulnar joint - ginglymus jt.
    • humeroradial joint - spheroidal jt. 
    • proximal radioulnar joint - trochoidal jt.
  80. name and component of joint btwn body's of radius and ulna
    • NAME of jt. is radioulnar syndesmosis
    • COMPONENT is antebrachial interosseous membrane
  81. only named carpal joint
    joint of the pisiform bone

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