Ch. 6 - Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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  1. long bones
    • longer than they are wide
    • all limb bones except patella and wrist/ankle bones
  2. short bones
    • cube-shaped bones (in wrist and ankle)
    • sesamoid bones (shaped like sesame seed) and form in a tendon.  ex- patella
    • vary in size and number in different individual
  3. flat bones
    • thin, flat, slightly curved
    • sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones
  4. irregular bones
    • complicated shape
    • vertebrae, coxal bones
  5. epiphysis
    the end of a long bone, attached to the shaft
  6. osteocalcin
    • hormone produced by bone which helps regulate bone formation and
    • protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, and diabetes mellitus
  7. diaphysis
    elongated shaft of bone
  8. articular cartilage
    hyaline cartilage covering bone ends at movable joints
  9. endosteum
    connective tissue membrane covering internal bone surfaces
  10. periosteum
    • double-layered connective tissue that covers and nourishes the bone
    • external
  11. osteogenesis
    • process of bone formation
    • also called ossification
  12. bone marrow
    fat (yellow) or blood forming (red) tissue found within the bone cavities
  13. diploe
    the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
  14. hematopoiesis
    blood cell formation
  15. osteoblasts
    bone forming cells
  16. osteoclasts
    large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix
  17. osteocyte
    mature bone cell
  18. structural unit of compact bone
    osteon, or Haversian system
  19. osteon
    • system of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone
    • unit of bone
    • also called Haversian system
  20. canaliculi
    hairlike canals connect lacunae to each other and to the central canal in compact bone
  21. appositional growth
    • growth in width
    • growth accomplished by the addition of new layers onto those previously formed
  22. Wolff's Law:  result of mechanical stressor
    • bones grow or remodel in response to demands placed on it
    • explains: handedness, bones of fetus and bedridden featureless, curved bones thickest where most likely to buckle
  23. reduction
    • treatment of fracture
    • realignment of broken bone ends

    • closed reduction = dr manipulates to correct position
    • open reduction = surgical pins or wires to secure ends
  24. immobilization
    • treatment of fracture by cast or traction
    • -- depends on break severity, bone broken, and age of pt
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Ch. 6 - Bones and Skeletal Tissue
2013-02-19 03:10:20

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